The Water Diety’s Symbols in Spirituality of People of Khorezm
Абдалов У. М. The Water Diety’s Symbols in Spirituality of People of Khorezm // Молодой ученый. 2014. №1. С. 275-276.
The human activity to gain valuable post in society has closely been connected with natural events. According to the results of archeological investigations, in VI-V B. C. water source was very important in everyday life of Central Asian people (Joytun, Hisor, Kaltaminor). It is just the thing that water is life for every creature on earth. At first our ancestries occupied the areas with water sources to develop different branches of national economy (mountains, areas of mountain valleys and oasis). A lot of peoples’ inhabits around the water canals appeared as a result of water flowing from Central Asian mountains and the raise of water level in the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, the notion of sacred water and worshiping to its deity established.as water was very important in ancestries life activities in different economic branches of society. Ancient inhabitants living in southern Joytun and Chakmokli areas of central Asia, South eastern Hisor and Zarafshon, Khorezm regions dwelt by hunting and picking Water Deity was sacred in peoples’ spirituality. The occupation of water areas by primitive people was not an eventual situation.
Even in monotheistic Zoroastrian religion the Water deity was very important. According to the English scholar on Avesto science, M Boyes, water and fire were considered as main objects in Zoroastrian religion. Water gave life to deserts and sand. Proto-Indo-Europeans who were the ancient ancestries of Indo-Europeans considered seas, rivers and water gulfs as sacred material depict of deity Apas and held sacrifice ceremonies to honor it [2, c. 10]. As the member of Khorezm expedition G. P. Snesserev claimed, the notion of sacred water was for the first time worshipped by the people of Central Asia [7, c. 193].
In World countries peoples dealing with the directions of national economy we can see that there are types of worshiping connected with water in lifestyle of people [8, c. 130–135]. The images of river, lake, stream, sea and ponds have been shaped in human consideration as the sources of life-water. Besides, calling for the rain and stopping it in case of water deficiency, giving water to bride and groom, washing the new born child, cleaning the dead body with warm water are the different scenes in ceremonies of worshipping to water cult.
The notion of water is widely explained in myths, national songs, folk music created by ancestries. The water deity considered as main deity by names of ponds, pitches, falls and rivers in Khorezm spiritual world folk songs.
Water was worshiped as the main source of life as it was considered valuable gift from God for animals, plants and human life.
You can come across with the following lines of worshiping in Avesto:-Oh, Water! You are serving for goodness! By washing and cleaning the depth you gain the happiness of two world(the real life and life after death)! We appreciate you! [1, c. 227]. The function of purity was considered in marking main functions of water in Zoroastrian religion. In third part of seventh chapter it was called “fargard” the purity of the water was depicted as in this lines ”Oh Great Zoroaster! The water of Ardivyusvar falls purify the men’s seed, the baby in mothers belly, and the milk in mothers breast [1, c. 133].
From early centuries the custom of bride and groom’s drinking water in wedding before religious worship was held in order to save the sacredness of the family by Khorezm people .
I customs of Zoroastrian religion the traditions of water cult were obeyed when a new child was born in a family and its early days which were called “chilla”(it lasted for seven and forty days). In custom of “Ending chilla” the child is washed in water with coin, salt, egg, and knife. People believed that these customs have magic features, they were obeyed to regard happiness and completeness to the child. In this sense we can come across with the following lines in the third part of “Vendidod”’s fifth chapter (fargard): ”When a new child is born in the family of a Zoroastrian man, one should replace them in a place without the danger of water and Fire the son of Akhuramazd, cattle and sheep shepherding, also in a place where religious customs with crowd of people are not held, but in a place with lots of useful plants. The giving new birth woman should have stayed three steps far from people with fire, water, barsam bunches and ashavan. That is why they surrounded the house with high walls and they kept and feed the mother and the child in this house without letting her out of the wall. The mother who gave a new birth was considered as not pure for some days. That is why she should not touch the sacred things within this period. That is why she was allowed to eat meat, bread and drink wine but was not allowed to drink water for three days and night. The mother kept herself from drinking water and going for water to the pitch or pond. Because people were afraid of that mother’s polluting sacred water. After three days, they dug nine holes in one of the rooms of the house where the mother with new born child living. And mother wash her body and clothes with warm water and purified herself by doing early purifying customs. After that of nine days and nights of “chilla” The mother washed her body and clothes with warm water and silver to purify herself and could join and start living together with her family members.
This custom remained among our people in the tradition of “Ending chilla”. Usually the mother of new born child is considered as impure for some days. According to the ethnographer G. P. Sneserev, the people of the region considered the mother of new born child as impure and didn’t let her participate in household work and she might not go for water to the well, pitch, canal or river and outside of the house at night [7, c. 91–92]. Even nowadays the mother of new born child was kept from hard work in a family by its members as in the custom . The historical background of customs connected with the period of chilla goes back to the Zoroastrian religion. According to the materials of field trip practice lessons, it became clear that the mother and new born child had purification period within forty days and were saved from evil ghosts by obeying spiritual and physical purification rituals .
Acording to Zoroastrian religion, dead body of a dog or human being considered as impure and it was prohibited to seed, water or grow plants in that place where the dog or human being died. The place of dead body was considered as impure place it was to be purified by the sun-rays for a year. In the forth part of sixth chapter in “Vendidod” we can read the following line:” For a year you mustn’t seed, water or grow plants in place where people or dogs died.” A person who committed sane in life time was beaten twenty times with three types of whid. People tried to keep the dead body off from the water, not sprinkle water to the room where the dead body was kept and not to bring water to the place where the dead body was [9, c. 55]. We become sure that people tried to save the pureness of the water by obeying these customs and rituals.
In everyday life old aged people every time claim to save the pure water, to economize it and not to pollute it to young people. Spiting to the water is strictly forbidden. As the water is equal to the face of mother and grown ups teach young people not to spat on it by saying ” It is sane to spat on If you spat on water you will be considered as you spat on your mothers face” .
So we can come to the following conclusion basing on above mentioned historical facts:
Water played the main part in people’s life and finding own position in society. Especially water was main thing in the life of permanent and cattle farming people. That is why people inhabited at areas close to natural resources and water. The raise of water levels of water falls from mountains and rivers was the main reason of appearing water cult among people. Worshipping to the river Amudarya was strong among Khorezm people. People thought that the Arangs deity the god of Amudarya river was responsible to the raise of water level and flooding around areas. The image of Khubbi protecting from Deity Arang’s flood is widely spread among people’s spirituality of the region. That is why it is not eventual giving the name to a new born boy child ”Khubbiquli” or girl child” Khubbioy”. In general, we can say that customs, traditions and rituals connected with the water didn’t loose its importance in everyday life of Uzbek people in Khorezm region at present too.
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