The article describes the measures aimed at improving the efficiency of the development of coal industry during the restructuring.
Keywords: restructuring, development prospects, coal mining, the concept of development.
The Russian Federation, one of the world leaders in the production of coal, ranks the second place in the reserves and the fifth place in production of coal (over 320 million tons per year). Analyzing the level of production we can use the reserves for more than 550 years.
Russia is the leader in coal exports, supplying coal to countries of the EU, as well as China, Japan, Turkey and others. Basically, coal mining is conducted by private companies, forming the specifics of the market. In Russia there are more than a third of global coal reserves, among which about 70 % are accounted for lignite. The development of the coal basins in conjunction with the use of modern technology is no more difficult.
The coal industry plays a leading role in the country's energy balance. Coal is widely used in electricity generation and more than 25 % of it is in the balance of the fuel and energy complex and this number is growing. By 2020 it should reach 31–38 %. In addition, the coking coal market has also the positive dynamics of demand. The main participants «Evraz Group», «Sibuglemet» and «Southern Kuzbass» form about 57 % of the market, producing 70–80 % of solid and semi-solid coal — the most valuable to the industry.
The prospects for the development of the coal industry in Russia are connected with the integration of coal production and power generation. It will allow to create on the base of mines modern energy facilities through retrofitting of electric power generators for power generation, as well as the equipment of the processing industry for manufacture of synthetic motor fuel. In the nearest years Russia will not be threatened by the shortage of coal, supply and demand balance in the market will continue.
Among the basic industries, coal industry was first involved in the reform. The process of restructuring of the industry is a logical step in its reform and one of the essential links in the reform of the Russian economy. The closure of unprofitable mines had a positive impact on the mine fund. In 1992 coal mining was carried out from particularly unprofitable and unproductive mines, while in 2000 the share of promising coal mines increased almost to 70 % .
In accordance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation in 1999–2000 in Rostov region an experiment of targeted social assistance to former miners was conducted. As a result of the experiment about 600 miners got released gratuitous targeted grants from the state — support for the organization of business activities. All that led to stabilization of the social situation in the region.
The closure of loss-making enterprises and the concentration of production at the effective ones could bring the coal industry of the country to the steady growth of labor productivity.
All unprofitable mines with unfavorable geological conditions dangerous for miners’ life and health were mostly closed. Liquidating work has completed on 158 of 183 mines in the process of liquidation . At the end of 2001 219 coal enterprises (engineering units) operated in Russia, including 116 open-casts and 103 mines.
As a result of the restructuring program of the coal industry in 2001 coal production by coal private organizations was 77,2 %. Allocation of subsidies to cover losses from 2002 was completely phased out.
Further process of formation and subsequent recovery of the coal industry demanded implementation of public policies reflecting the interests of the economy based on the continuation of market reforms. Regulation of coal production for the Russian domestic market and for export was provided primarily by market factors: coal mining enterprises mined the amount of coal to fulfill consumers. At the same time domestic demand remained determining and seasonal for mining enterprises.
If the share of coal in the world economy is 40 %, in Russia, which has almost a third of total world reserves, the share of coal used in power engineering, metallurgy and domestic sector is only 17,3 % . One of the reasons of such low level was unwarranted decline of coal mining enterprises in Rostov region from previously reached 30 million tons to 7.5 million tons expected in 2003.
Thus, by 2004 production capacity of mining enterprises of the «Eastern Donbass» was 11,2 million tons. To save potentially profitable part of the production capacity, the elimination of particularly unprofitable mines in the region and solving socio-economic problems of the region about 9,2 billion rubles or 20,7 % of all funds of the state support of the coal industry from the federal budget has been allocated.
However, the effectiveness of using such a large amount of government support is extremely low, so the annual coal production has declined steadily from 10,9 million tons in 1998 to expected 6,9 million tons in 2003, with capacity of existing mines for 61 %.
The main reasons for the current situation in the region were inefficient choice of potential investors and unsatisfactory work of the new management of new coal companies. The most negative dynamics of production and economic activity of the coal area companies manifested in 2002–2003 with the advent of the new owner of the former mines association «Rostovugol» represented by Ltd Holding Company “Russian Coal”.
Coal mining enterprises of this company were provided with industrial and opened coal reserves, sufficient for productive activities for 25–30 years. Analyzing the key factors (ventilation, mine lifting, underground transport and technological complex surface) one can say that companies were able to provide 4 million tons per year. However, due to the systematic failure of mining and preparatory work and the lack of the necessary mining equipment, reducing the number of active face outputs and chronic lack of funds for productive activities, production capacity of the enterprise for the last year was only 30,7 %.
Extremely unsatisfactory state of affairs in the industrial sector as a direct result of the extensive work of leadership of the «Company Rostovugol», lack of effective investment programs, large wage arrears, payables about 1milliard rub. and understaffing. With catastrophic decline of mining the company loses both domestic market and the market in neighboring regions. The demands of the market are met in required quantities due to delivery of «Siberian» anthracite.
The result of unprofessional operation of new «owners» of coal mining companies in the region in 2003 was a sharp, more than 1 million tons, reduction of coal mining, which led to rising social tensions, accounts payable and arrears of wages, despite the objective possibility of correcting the situation. First of all, it is available productive capacity (more than 11 million tons) and the high quality and consumer value of produced anthracite, competitive products with constant demand on both domestic and on the European markets. According to expectations grounded in the Federal Program «Russian Coal» production by 2020 will increase to 12–15 million tons, with a much greater need in coal of the North Caucasus region and the whole of the Southern Federal District .
The development of the crisis in 1993–2005 confirmed that a significant part of the economy of the region does not meet the new conditions, is not perceived by the market, does not bring any income to the region or its inhabitants. This strengthened the uselessness of professional, social and cultural potential of the population and its social and property differentiation.
Nevertheless, some positive changes in the coal industry could be seen. In December 2005 the mine by Chicha (Shachty) resumed its operating. In February 2007 the mine «Sherlovskaya — Naklonnaya» of «Donugol» was commissioned with a planned production capacity of 650 thousand tons of anthracite per year. Also the construction of the mine «Obukhovskaya number 1» with production capacity of 2 million tons of rock mass and group concentrator is continued.
In 2007 Ltd «Rostovsyakaya coal company» acquired the license to develop the field of coking coal in Tatsinskiy area and began construction of the mine «Bystryanskaya 1–2» with capacity of 750 tons per year. Also in the 2007 financial-industrial group «Rusinkor» acquired the license and began to design the construction of the mine by B. F. Bratchenko in the area «Kalinovsky-Vostochnyi» in Belokalitvensk district .
In 2010 in the Russian coal industry 228 mining enterprises operated (91 mines and 137 open-casts) of the total annual production capacity of more than 370 million tons of coal. Practically all mining was provided by private enterprises and reached 323 million tons.
Restructuring of the coal industry as a whole has led to positive results. Russian coal industry today is a potentially promising industry capable of providing the needs of the country in coal-fired for the next decades. Resources of the Coal industry in Russia reliably meet the demand for further development of coal mining.
Development of the concept of sustainable development, the need for which has already claimed for a long time, both in the global and national scale, including regional aspects, associated with the extension of a number of programs and projects. Social technologies, in their turn, should determine the status of control of social processes, balance of complex social systems.
Currently, a regional program of development of coal industry till 2030 which should be prepared by December 2013 is being designed. This document is based on the Regional Concept of the development of the coal industry until 2030. The program will include the conclusions of the companies in the industry in 2012 and supply managers, owners of coal companies operating in the region. The program of coal industry development for the period up to 2030 will determine the specific list of activities and projects aimed at achieving the objectives formed by the concept.
The concept of the coal industry of the Rostov region for the period until 2030 was developed and approved by the Governor in July 2012 year. The Concept defines the objectives for the development of the coal industry in the region and provides a gradual increase in coal production due to the reconstruction of existing and creation of new capacities. The result of the implementation of the Concept should be an increase in coal production to 12–13 million tons per year and it will allow the coal industry to remain a significant part of the economy in the Rostov region.
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