The relationship of citizen institutions, political institutions and public organisations
Кенжаев Э. Х. The relationship of citizen institutions, political institutions and public organisations // Молодой ученый. 2014. №1. С. 289-290.
There is no exact definition of the term “the citizen institutions” in the scientific literatures published in Uzbekistan, in the works of the laywers and politicians who deal with the questions of citizen rights, citizen society and democratic society of our republic.
We should fairly say that in the doctoral dissertation on the theme “the formation and the development of the institutions of citizen societies in Uzbekistan” which M. Kirgizbaev defended in 2007 he named the 4-chapter “the process of development of the institution of citizen societies in Uzbekistan” and in the abstract of the dissertation he showed as “the institutions of citizen society in Uzbekistan — the process of development and democratizing of nongovernmental, noncommercial organisations, self-governing authorities, mass media, the role of education and wealth in building citizen society are researched” . But he didn’t give an exact definition of “citizen institutions”, he didn’t pay attention to its meaning, essence, system and position. Of course, he approached this question in the sphere of his dissertation theme.
So, although there is a term “citizen institutions”, its exact definition is not found in the scientific literatures and dictionaries published in our republic. Therefore, there is no exact imaginations about this institution in our citizens especially in our youth. That is why the demand is increasing to use it in science giving a definite definition of it or showing its peculiarities at least.
So, what should be understood about “citizen institutions”? In giving their definition, first of all we should consider their names. Particularly, “a citizen institution” is considered as an organization reflecting the benefits of citizens. It should be mentioned that “political institutions” also reflect the benefits of citizens. Thus, what is the difference between them?
First, political institutions includes the branches of state government, political parties and relies on their “power” in governing the society. Because, in the support of any kind of politics there is the question of government and in governing the society it is given superiority of using the resources of the government for the sake of the citizens.
Second, the aim of the political reforms is meant to give freedom to the branches of state government, to pass their functions to the citizen institutions step by step. In its turn, in passing to the citizen government system it widely enables to prepare political, social and spiritual-educational support. “citizen institutions” is different from “political institutions”: first, people’s political mind and political culture will highly develop and their self-governing will appear. As the President Islam Karimov said “self-governing authorities are our future. If we want to build a citizen society, these authorities will be its basic fundaments” . According to this instruction, a great attention is being paid to the development of the most important element of the citizen institution the self-governing authorities.
Second, as the aim of developing the citizen institutions is to give freedom to the political institutions, it is meant not to pass some of the functions of government to another, but to develop the self-governing system.
Third, if one of the aims of political reforms is to “weaken” the functions of the state government in governing the society step by step, one of the main aims of developing the citizen institutions is meant to pass the enthusiasm in governing the society to the citizens’ rule. Because, in the citizen society though the state is kept, it participates in governing the society as a “passive” institution.
Besides the citizen institutions, there are also public organisations in our society, that they also participate in building a citizen society with their work to satisfy citizens’ different benefits. In this meaning they can be included in an only “system” which participates in building a citizen society.
“Citizen institutions” has been considered to be included in “public organisation” in general. But actually there are particular differences. What institutions in the system of “public organisation” are included in the system of “citizen institutions”, in what do their positions find their reflection, and how do they participate in the democratic processes? Although common relationship and position of citizen institutions haven’t exactly been described on this subject, we should emphasize that M. Kirgizbaev called one chapter of his dissertation “The process of development of the institution of citizen societies in Uzbekistan”  and added nongovernmental, noncommercial organisations, self-governing authorities, mass media in it…” Such approaches can be met in other literatures and dissertations. Particularly, nearly such ideas can be met in the candidate dissertation of Meyli Turakulov as well.
Besides that, the second chapter, the first paragraph of M. Gulomov’s book called “Mahalla — the base of the citizen society” was called “State is the head reformer in formation of democratic institutions”. But, the author didn’t give an exact idea about what are included in democratic institutions, and why they are called democratic institutions. He only coming out of the name of the book gave his ideas in detail about mahalla’s role in society and in the life of people.  In the guidebook worked out on the occasion of proclamation of the year 2003 as “flourishing mahalla” “…indicating the mahalla’s position as a citizen institution…, working out the suggestions…” submitted to the appropriate organisations was emphasized in this book 
XIII chapter of the Constitution of the republic of Uzbekistan was called “Public associations”. Article 56 of the Constitution indicates: “In the Republic of Uzbekistan the professional unions, political parties, societies of scientists, women’s organisations, the honorary and the youth organisations, artistic unions, public activities and other organisations registered as indicated in the law are considered as public unions” .
While indicating the concept “citizen institutions” and its position the concept “public organisations” and its role in the democratic processes should be determined. Because, in the scientific literatures published in Uzbekistan exact analysis between their positions hasn’t been sufficiently given like “citizen institutions” and “political institutions”. The ideas from the point of view of their participations in the democratic processes can be met almost in all the literatures, doctoral and candidate dissertations.
Thus, in what do the concepts “citizen institutions” and “public organisations” and their positions find their reflection?
First of all, it should be emphasized that “citizen institution” can originally be included in the structure of “public organisation”. But, from the point of view of their activity, they differ from each other with the followings:
- Public organization s don’t intend to maintain the society in some meanings, but they participate in the democratizing process of the society. Particularly, they can influence on the government by their activity. In the same meaning the president of our Republic Islam Karimov said: “It should separately be mentioned that, the developed system of nongovernmental and public organisations should serve to form and strengthen the harmony of the benefits in the society. This system must fill the activity of the state organisations in some meaning, and do the function as a means of providing the balance of them ”;
- citizen institutions intend to provide the participation of the people in governing the society. That is, in this way they participate in governing. About their position in this process we will mention in detail in the next paragraphs of our research. Public organization have been participating in helping the country by satisfying professional and fan interests, developing the scientific-technic, technological and literary creativity, organizing the charity measures, and participating in them, protecting the historical and cultural monuments, strengthening the friendship among the nations, developing the international relationships and organizing another measures.
- In governing the society citizen institutions work side by side with the state government. And the public organisations participate in the state government not satisfying the benefits of their subjects in governing the society, but satisfying their benefits in the professional, social, economical and spiritual-educational fields and corporate with them;
- Public organisations (particularly, scientific-technical, literary-artistic organisations and other organisations) work without getting money from the state budget. But, to all the organisations included in the citizen institutions certain amounts are divided from the state budget, and appropriate responsibilities are put on their responsibility as well. In structuring the citizen society the balance of the role of the citizen institutions and public organisations will occur. The main reason of it can be explained by highly increasing of political and social activity of the citizens.
Today, if we consider from the point of view of the development of the democratic processes in Uzbekistan, it is not right to consider the citizen institutions and the public organization as the same concept. Because, this consideration will be opposite to the aims of the citizen institutions to get the “government administration” under its control. Besides, putting them opposite one another is considered to be nonscientific. Practically both of them are the optional organization of the people and serve for their sake.
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