Несмотря на ряд исследований, проведенных в связи с проблемами ашугской среды, все ещё существует множество вопросов требующих своего разрешения. В статье раскрывается историко-культурное значение ашугской среды Агбаба — Чылдыра и даётся оценка проведенным ранее исследованиям.
Здесь также описывается разрушительное влияние войн, депортаций и этнической чистки происходивших в данной области на ашугскую среды Агбаба Чылдыра. Таким образом, были выявлены социально-политические причины распада и исчезновения ашугской среды Агбаба Чылдыра и рассмотрена история этих процессов.
Ключевые слова:среда ашугская, фольклористика, Агбаба — Чылдыр, классификация, культурный и географический ареал.
Although the environment of ashug was seriously researched in the folklore studies of Azerbaijan and Turkey, but there are still some scientific descriptions of the pending issues.First of all it should be noted that there are dual arguments about “ashug environment”. Some scientists (prof. G. Namazov, prof. A. Nabiyev, prof. S.Pashayev and others) consider it is better not to use “ashug environment”, but “the school of ashug”. F.e. when prof. G.Namazov was talking about the Azerbaijan’s art of ashug he talked about the ashug schools in Goyche, Shamkir, Garabagh, Shirvan, Borchali [1,5]. Some scientists like I.Abbasli, H.Ismayilov, M.Gasimli, Z.Maharramov, A.Kafkasyali and others consider in the Azerbaijan ashug art from the scientific aspect it is proper to use the concept of “environment”. Prof. M.Gasimli conditionally characterized Azerbaijan’s art of ashug as “historical ashug environments” and “modern ashug environments”, and for us from the scientific point of view it’s more convincing.Well-known investigator shows that there are 16 ashug environments and gives their specific and scientific characteristic.
Turkish investigator A.Kafkasyali in his “ Iranian Turkish’s ashug environment” poem characterized ashug environment in South Azerbaijan. He classified ashug environment and listed 7 names of ashug environment (Tabriz-Garabagh, Urmiya, Sulduz-Garapapag, Zancan, Qum-Sava, Xorasan and Gashgai ashug environments).
It should be noted that scholar M.Qasimli also classified south ashug environment in his research, but he didn`t deal with Sulduz-Garagapag ashug environment. While Scholar A. Nebiyev dealt with the feature of Azerbaijan ashug art, he nominated the idea of the specification of “every ashug school with the tradition of personal creation”, he classified the local circle of this art under the name of Anatolia, Shirvan, Tebriz and Goycha ashug school. And then scholar characterized 4 ashug environments: a) Borchali b) Daralayaz,Yerevan, Childir c) Ganjabasar, d) Nagorno Karabagh asuq environment as Goycha school.
For A.Nebiyev, every ashug environment is surrounded the geographical territory where ashug tradition performance is spread. The position of the region’s cultural, historical,geographical conditions, climate,local customs, way of life, ethic and religious-faith meetings, sensitivity degree of the saz and word and etc such numerous factors include to this environment.
Then one of the characterizing features of the ashug environment is the historical geographical areal, the others which we are counted before. Scholar H. Ismayilov evaluated it very well and writes: Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment is one of the richest centers which has their own specific features in the special local territory. It is known that saz melody of Aghbaba-Childir differs from the other saz melody of the different parts of Azerbaijan.Although it resembles Goycha,Borchali saz melody, but more it is similar to Urmia saz melody. “The note of the researcher is important from 2 sides. First- Scholar specially notes the definite specificity of Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment. Second- While he speaks about this environment he specially notes Aghbaba -Childir ashug environment, not Childir ashug environment. It is fully compatible with the main characterizing features of the ashug environment. By the way we must specify one matter. Till now in the Azerbaijan folklore Childir ashug environment is noted, not Aghbaba- Childir ashug environment. It isn’t write from the scientific point of view. M.Qasimli who investigated Azerbaijan ashug environment in detail, but he also deals with Childir ashug environment in his research.Though he also noted that in Aghbaba and Gizilgoch region which include to Childir district, Ashug art is improved. M.Qasimli also use the phrase “Childir-Aghbaba ashug environment” in the known monography. The social-political, historical-cultural relation of this region with Childir, Kars, Ahiska districts continued for centures.
In the boundaries of this local geographic areal saz melody and musical repertoire, perfoming and composing traditions and so on are developing in the same direction, but of course it saves main repertoire of Azerbaijan ashug art. Then it is right to characterize this environment as Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment. The point of view of scholar A.Nebiyev about it is contradictory and controversial”. In the area where was saz-word tradition, ashug environment was created and shaped. From this point of view in Yerevan, Daralayaz, Aghbaba- Childir, Borchali, Ganjabasar regions there was enough historical basis of the saz — word traditions. A.Nebiyev showed that ashug environment in the Aghbaba- Childir region is rooted to the fundamental traditions and shaped, but it is more appropriate for him to call this environment as Childir ashug environment. In future we will deal about this more comprehensive. Taking into account cultural-geographical areas, historical-genetic characteristics, regional peculiarities we consider more accurate to call this environment as Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment. Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment has happened history. Many years this environment was outside in the study object of Azerbaijan folklore and because of this historical- cultural geography of this region hasn’t been researched. For centuries, Aghbaba- Childir region was situated in Osmanli Turkey, more precisely, in the boundaries of the administrative geography of Eastern Anatolia. Scholar F.Kirzioglu in the article “3 Uguz daghi” dealt with the historical geography of Aghbaba- Childir region in the short form and he wrote: “Since 1920 our state border has been passing over Aghbaba mountain which is the summer pasture of the village in the East and South of the Lake Childir.” “Aghbaba district which is known as his summer pasture in the territory of this mountain, in 1639 since Gesri-Shirin contract, but is a part of Kars with Gumru treaty, on 2–3 December 1920.It was outside of the boundary of our country and it was given to Armenia.Most of the population who are Turkish move to the villages around Kars.It isn’t coincidence that Ahiska was called “lock of Istanbul” among the people, and it is one of the largest countries of the region which is called “key lock” of Eastern Turkey.
Even before the VII — VI centuries BC Saka (Iskit)tribes which settled in these lands, in later centuries Oghuz tribes in the deep-rooted traditions have created their powerfull state agencies and in order to save their freedom and presence of their nation, they have been forced to make bloody wars. It means protecting of an ethno-national memory. National and spiritual and material values, folklore and ashug art which is one of the main part of folklore. Noting of this feature isn’t casual. Among the Azerbaijan ashug environment Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment is one of the environment which maintain all historical-geographical, social-cultural,economical-political changes special conservatism in himself. The occupation of Ahiska, Kars,Erdahan, Aghbaba, Shoreyel from Russian troops or adding Childir to Ottoman Turkey is described in the creation of regional ashugs with all poetic details. In the XVI century Ashug Cheyali has written about Childir victory of Ottoman Empire, write about all the happened accident and definite facts. “Deyersen” minstrel poem begins with the addressing to the crane as well as other ashug poems:
Crane, if you go to our land
Vizier moved from Erdahan
The khans of Kizilbash came against
There was a war in Childir, deyersen.
It is known from historical sources on 9 august 1578 Childir fight pass very intensively because of the rain and was continued till the evening. One of the participants of this fight, Ashug Kheyali come to the horror from the bloody scenes and describe all reality with heart- ache:
Mud was in the knee because of bool and tears
Horses couldn’t move because of dead bodies
The castles were made from cutting head
White bodies sank to blood, deyersen.
If ashug Kheyali described Turkish’s victory in his minstrel poem, in the poem os Ashug Uzeyir Ahiska’s defeat is described with very deep sorrow and rage:
Nightingale doesn’t sing in the garden
Will move to darling, but can’t go
Houses are extinguished,bonfire doesn’t light.
Train lined as the crane
It should be noted that well-known representative of Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment Ashug Uzeyir has some poems about Russian-Turkish wars, specially bloody crimes which tsar Russia committed in Ahiska. All these show that in all periods Aghbaba-Childir ashugs approach all military collisions and all military administrative-political changes with special sensitivity and this approachment was made the shape of art tradition. Though there are 250 years between the date of writing these minstrel poems both of these poems have poetic content of Turkism and ethno-national thoughts. This feature must be characterized as one of the indicators of historical-cultural character of Aghbaba- Childir ashug environment while speaking from the position of Aghbaba- Childir ashug environment in Azerbaijan ashug art. It should be take into consideration in this environment “art map” didn’t coincide with the geographical map in many cases as in some other ashug environment.
In 1828 with the occupation Ahiska from Russian invaders the basis of the tragedies in the history of Aghbaba- Childir ashug environment. 5 large regions- Ahiska, Adigun, Esminje, Akhirkelek, Gojabey regions were included to Ahiska district which is situated in the northborder of Childir. The total area is 6160 kvadrat km, this ancient turks land is consisting of 220 villages, this lands begin from Childir plain, from the upper flow of Kura River, the basin Choruh Borchali and runs to Borchali lowlands along the ridge of Miskhet- Javankhet mountain. At present in the historical Ahiska district in Georgia the turks lived till 1944. On November 1944 population of the district exiled to Central Asia and Kazakhistan because of the relations with Turkey, were spread out to the 7 republic of the former Soviet Union. The lands which called Childir are the unique area from the Ahiska Childir beylerbeyi which can save their freedom. The third part of divided country has been given to Armenia. Only special part of this large land Aghbaba (Amasya) which cover Aghbaba, Gizilgoch and Shoreyel lived Azeri Turks. In the last deportation of 1988 the native people of this region –Azeri Turks ousted forcibly till the last person from their native, historical lands by Armenians. By the way we need to clarify one matter.The well-known researcher of Azerbaijan ashug environment scholar M.Kasimli while speaking about the third divided part of Childir district dealt with Aghbaba and Gizilgoch (Amasya and Gukasyan) district.
Though the large part of Shoreyel valley torned away forcely and was given to Armenia. Only some regions of dozens of cities were given to Amasya district (Gullubulag, Okhchoglu, Garachanta, Magarajig and so on). Other villages (Ganlica, Aralig, Gav, Bayandur) were included to Duzkend(Akhuryan) district and the people of this region — all the turks in XIX century ousted forcely from their native motherland.Armenians are dwelled in some of them, but some of them were demolished. All this show that Aghbaba — Childir ashug environment maintain their being in very different conditions.Historical definition of Childir district consists from these 3 parts integrity. Childir ashug environment is formed on the same large scale area.
First of all it should be noted that in the local area of Azerbaijan ashug art the historical geography of Aghbaba- Childir region is surrounded several time larger ethnic- cultural area from the modern geographical boundaries of Aghbaba- Childir ashug environment.It is known from historical sources after giving back from Sefevi Ahiska –Childir beylerbeyi is one of the 44 regions of Ottoman Empire and the center of this region is Childir, in different time sections the border of Ahiska — Childir beylerbeyi is surrounded very large boundary in the south Ighdir, in the north Borzhomi, from the west Adjaria, from the east Borchali district. Childir which has large border in the period of occupation by Ottoman Empire in 1578 was covered administrative area consisted 6 large sanjag (Ahiska, Khirtiz, Akhirkelek, Childir, Poskof, Bedre) in the composition of this sanjag there was 22 district, in some sources, the number of sanjag which is in the composition of Childir is 9. In the historical and geographical researches, Childir district called different names, during its existing. It has political- administrative, military- strategic importance. Ahiska region which is a part of Childir has special importance. The population is engaged in agriculture and trade. To break up the national — ethnic composition of the population and to break them away from the ethnic- cultural memory is the main plan of tsar Russia and him helpers. In order to go to the gulf of Basra and Isgenderun Russia occupy Kars, they planned to creat unity of the faithful among Turkish and Azeri turks and to create congestion. For this purpose they settled there armenians, russians, tokhabirs, malakans, Volqa germans and even estons. To use from armenians for releasing this crafty policy consider his main purpose, for capturing Eastern Anatolia they conducted aggressive wars. The wars between Turks and Russians continued 300 years between XVII- XX centuries. On average it means a collision in 20 years. In nearest history there was no 2 nations which fought so much. Ashug Shoreyel Efkari in the poem “Shoreyel dastani” said:
You are spoiled in every 20 years,
This is always so, Shoreyel.
With these words he meant historical reality, cruel wars in this region. Our goal for bringing a sample of some poetic image, all these facts and historical statistics is to make detailed picture of developing Aghbaba — Childir ashug environment in difficult conditions from XIX century.
As before we noted, wars, ethnic cleanings, deportations and so on were changing the administrative-geographical map of the district Aghbaba-Childir, and also the art map of the region, national-aesthetic values were striken, at the same time historical-genetic resources, the people’s ethno-national memory was being shattered.
Changing the names of the regions in Aghbaba, Ahiska district which is the part of Georgia, bu armenians and georgians giving the false names to the geographical objects organized parts of this policy. After giving Ahiska and his arounds to Georgia, Georgian government officials change the names of Turkish places completely or exactly change some feature of the name. Historical and linguistic genocide in Ahiska and Armenians carried out this in Aghbaba district and generally in Armenia. Turkologist Aslan Bayramov who has many researches on the toponomies of Western Azerbaijan, writes that, Armenians who are hostile attitude to turks, changed more than thousands name of geographical objects.
The examples we showed is the evidence how spiritual genocide was done in Aghbaba — Childir district. Taking into account the function of ashug environment in the ethno- national memory of os popularity, in Aghbaba- Childir ashug creation we are witness the changing onomastic units to the poetic method. Geographical toponomy of this area carried enough importance in the Aghbaba-Childir ashug environment. Regardless the size and genre every ashug poem which is created in this area is the issue which demands detailed research in order to restorate ethno- national memory, national interests in the terms of the modern age from the standpoint to express the outlined historical geography borders of the native land, macro and microtoponimies, national colouring and the regional views.
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