Develop a Strategic Model for Sustainable Development of Agricultural Production
Макаренко Н. А. Develop a Strategic Model for Sustainable Development of Agricultural Production // Молодой ученый. 2013. №3. С. 255-258.
Problem. Formation of competitive agricultural sector of Ukraine, whose activities would satisfy the needs of producers and consumers, is possible only if a comprehensive approach to the problems of agricultural producers. Using an integrated approach makes it possible to search for ways to increase efficiency and reserves development of new agricultural, their closest approach to all areas of agribusiness and development of strategic models of sustainable development of agricultural production with service cooperatives. The development of such models is the central unit formed in this paper a mechanism for sustainable development of agricultural production.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Significant contribution to the study of strategic models of sustainable agriculture researchers did A. E. Voronkova [1, p. 214–219] O. A. Halych  M. V. Hladiy [3, p.14] V. M. Zhmaylov [4, p.31] and others.
The aim of the study is to develop a strategic model for sustainable development of agricultural production through a combination of theoretical approaches to building models and creating strategies for business development.
Studies. The study combines the concepts of strategy and model and proposed by the strategic model to understand the mechanism of block of sustainable development of agricultural production, based on the principles of development strategies and the use of approaches to create models based on the definition of alternative integrated development using the method of scenarios. Thus, as shown by the results of the study, the foundation for sustainable development of agricultural production is the creation of strategic models .
Within established mechanisms for sustainable development of agricultural production takes place following strategic models: a model combining the owners of private agricultural enterprises and farms, the owners association model farms, model combining individual owners of land and property shares. Such model we propose based on the results of the theoretical examination of scientific sources and practical study of farmers conducted by the author. The basis for such models on the principles create service cooperatives. One element of the legal framework for the establishment of such cooperatives is the law of Ukraine «On Cooperation» on June 10, 2003 .
Here is evidence of the efficiency of principles of service cooperatives, while building strategic models of sustainable development of agricultural production. Organizational structure of agriculture, which existed before the privatization process in Ukraine is very different from that structure, which was developed agricultural countries. In the former collective farms, and later collective farms, there were plants or mini-workshops on processing of fruits and vegetables, milk, meat, sunflower, etc.. During the reform of such property complexes were distributed among the participants in privatization processes. Most of these sites closed down and are now on conservation. In our opinion, there are two real possibilities reopen these factories and workshops: First, find an entrepreneur who bought property shares to farmers and made capital investments in new business development, and secondly, to unite the owners of such shares and a Service Cooperative [2, s.369].
Consequently, Ukraine has a chance and have the need for supply, marketing, processing, service cooperatives, depending on the services and activities that are provided. Cooperation agricultural producers to share the basic means of production required each business entity, will reduce the cost of the acquisition, construction or rental and maintenance [1, p. 214]. On the basis of opinions farmers Sumy region, we identify areas of cooperation in areas of common use: agricultural equipment and machinery, creating machine-technological stations, schools industrial infrastructure (processing plants, greenhouses, shops for food, farms, construction workshops, etc..) Storage facilities (granaries, warehouses lubricants, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides), computers, laboratory equipment. Given the peculiarities of reforming agricultural enterprise areas of specialization emerging agricultural enterprises, as well as the demand for certain types of services you can offer such a model service cooperatives:
Multipurpose cooperatives formed to serve one type of product manufacturers.
Consumer still functional cooperatives or specialized cooperatives that serve different sectors of agricultural production.
Highly specialized cooperatives or associations of producers of similar products, in order to obtain one type of work or services.
To determine the multi-perspective models one branch cooperatives should go with the trends prevailing in agricultural production in recent years. Analysis of agricultural production in different types of farms Sumy region during 2007–2011 years shows that the main production of milk, potatoes and vegetables focused on household farms. In 2007, milk production in these farms amounted to 327.4 thousand tons, potatoes -912.6 thousand tons of vegetables — 133.8 thousand tons, and in 2011 the figures were respectively 305.4, 980.3 and 186.3 thousand tons over the same time peasant farmers got the following results: increased production of milk and potatoes by 77 % and 2.3 times, respectively, and vegetable production decreased slightly from 189t to 163t. As for the farm, the milk production fell from 170.8 to 150.8 thousand tons, potatoes — increased from 4.7 to 6.9 tons, vegetables — fell from 6.1 tons to 4.7 tons .
This study suggests that the owners of private farms in the area today — the main producers of milk and vegetables. Even in difficult economic conditions, they continue to increase production of these products. As you know, on household farms using heavy manual labor, spent a lot of time to perform certain operations. Such products are perishable and so manufacturers have to give it at discounted prices for processors, entrepreneurs or self-sell on the market. The goal of a dairy cooperative and vegetable — increased net income, which is received by its members on individual activity on the production of milk or vegetables in farms. This can be achieved not only through stocking and selling products on favorable terms, but also by providing a range of services that will reduce production costs and increase milk production and yield of vegetable crops. Later the main channels of milk and vegetables produced in personal subsidiary farms are retail markets and processing plants. Manufacturers of these products, together with the common purpose of its implementation, thus expanding market segments, reduce transportation costs, get free time for other work and rest. Formation of bulk products enables collaboration on a contractual basis with public and private enterprises and institutions (plants and factories, kindergartens, schools, hospitals, restaurants, etc.), as well as processing enterprises. Co-op is buying in agricultural commodity products, and sells it on their behalf, therefore raising their selling prices or reduce their selling costs returns as the difference between the preliminary and the final price to members. This is different from commercial service cooperatives intermediary organizations in which the sale is not going to finance agricultural production. Analysis of crop and livestock production in private farms proves that they have the largest share of the production of crops. Cooperative servicing grain producers will provide a range of services for the joint maintenance and use of agricultural machinery needed to implement the process of crops, drying, cleaning, storage, pre-processing and implementation. Such cooperatives should be formed by farmers one or two or three neighboring villages, local cooperatives. To further movement of grain products in the chain of agribusiness producers must unite in processing cooperatives for the production of flour, feed, flour and pasta from the further sale of finished products. Members of the local grain cooperatives may simultaneously be members of the district grain processing cooperatives.
The study provides some models only multi one branch cooperatives that are relevant to the situation existing in agricultural production in the region. In the future such a scheme have formed cooperatives to service livestock, gardening and so on. agricultural products. An example of multi still functional service cooperatives serve logistical and marketing cooperatives. Such cooperatives are common as agricultural enterprises and private farms population. It should be noted that marketing cooperatives established farmers do not buy products from them, and sells on their behalf. Choosing distribution channels and establishing Realizable prices, workers' cooperative acting in concert with its members. Cooperative shall have the right to create its own network of kiosks, shops, distribution centers and others. to implement as raw materials and processed products, participate on behalf of farmers, cooperative members in fairs, auctions and exhibit products at Agricultural commodity exchanges.
The study to determine the capacity of the proposed strategic models for sustainable development of agricultural production were two sociological survey among residents and Lebedinsky Burinskii areas Sumy region. The first survey was aimed at studying rural views on the situation in the agricultural sector of the economy, obtaining an objective assessment undertaken transformation and outline ways of further development of the industry. It was attended by 500 people of all ages, the majority — aged 30 to 50 years. Among the respondents were accountants, economists, farmers, teachers, mechanics, agronomists, drivers, builders, sellers and others. The results of the study can draw some conclusions.
Firstly, agriculture still remains low compared to other sectors. Rural residents are not feeling the positive results of transformations in the agricultural sector, find a way out of this situation in a return to collective management and consolidation of agricultural enterprises in restoring subsidies for production.
Secondly, speaking today about the timeliness of a series of legislative acts should start from the level of psychological readiness of society to the different processes that occur in the agricultural sector, the evolution of the market economy and the current state of agricultural production and serving his farms, the availability of real opportunities to enter the field of a difficult situation.
Thirdly, the market economy require agricultural producers of new knowledge and skills qualifications.
Research status and development service cooperatives showed that attention should be paid according to farmers on issues of service cooperatives. For this purpose, as well as to identify promising models of service cooperatives, we conducted a survey. Participants of the survey were mostly aged 30 to 50 years — 58 %, and 30–18 % over 50 years — 24 %. Among all respondents 59 % of women and 41 % men. According to the survey results regarding awareness of agricultural producers in matters of service cooperatives can draw the following conclusions: The level of education among agricultural producers in comparison with other sectors remains low; Question service cooperatives, its nature, meaning and basic principles of most agricultural producers do not even know. However, almost 50 percent of respondents believe the need for cooperation in the service of agricultural production, but they believe the process should go to the support of public authorities and with the assistance of experts and consultants in the field.
3. The participation of agricultural producers in the development of agricultural market infrastructure through cooperation has played a role in creating competitive relations in agriculture to stabilize agricultural production and its incentive to improve the living standards of the rural population, in creating jobs, alleviating rural labor.
The results of the survey confirm the correctness of theoretical conclusions made on the establishment of strategic models of sustainable development of agricultural production. We believe that further development of the agricultural sector should go in the direction of the following programs:
At the state level: subsidized training for masters and specialists in agriculture; expansion of counseling services in rural areas; computerization of all processes in agricultural production; earmarking update logistics and (or) development of promising new industries.
At the level of individual farms: development of production plans both current and future, which include financial, marketing plans, personnel policies; find ways, means and sources of the increase of own funds; definition of motivation to work; cooperation in the service of production processes of agricultural products, as well as financial and social spheres.
Conclusions and recommendations for further research. Measures taken in the agricultural sector should be comprehensive in nature and coincide with the possibilities of their implementation across the whole economy and individual farms. It is therefore urgent and important is the diagnosis and prognosis of sustainable agricultural production.
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