The development of teaching activities is analyzed in the article. The management skills used in classroom management are clarified. The specific principles for successful classroom management and tips. Also revealed a number of psychological issues related to the definition of class management, and considered various management approaches, the role of the teacher in management.
Keywords: psychological aspects of classroom management, teacher, teacher training, management.
В статье анализируется развитие педагогической деятельности. Разъясняются управленческие навыки, используемые в управление классом. Приведены конкретные принципы успешного управления и советы. Также раскрыт ряд психологических вопросов, связанных с определением классного руководства. Рассмотрены различные управленческие подходы и роль учителя в управлении.
Ключевые слова: психологические аспекты управления классом, учитель, подготовка учителей, менеджмент.
The role of a teacher is a motivating process in teaching and learning. The teacher should be ready to be an intermediary in any situation in the process of teaching and learning.
The task of a foreign language teacher is not only to be able to teach a lesson, but also to be able to manage the class, creating and maintaining a comfortable working environment. Good management is a form or support to ensure the effective and efficient work of the educational process when learning English. Effective classroom management creates a positive community in which students actively participate, complete academic assignments, and behave well. A teacher with professional competence is able to maintain a positive situation and change a negative situation to a positive one in the classroom learning process.
It follows from this that classroom management is the ability of a teacher to strategically organize a classroom in such a way that students can achieve their learning goals. Successful classroom management reduces the level of incompetent behavior of students and makes them more controllable, and this plays a big role in the success of teaching.
In pedagogical practice, teachers often characterize the class as friendly; difficult; manageable; crazy, etc. From the very beginning of the lesson in the classroom, the teacher is able to take into account the characteristics of a particular class. Each teacher builds his own specific process of managing the educational activities of students, monitors the general attention. The main conditions for managing general attention are interest, a skillfully constructed algorithm, and moderate use of stimuli. A teacher is a kind of showman who deftly manages his emotions and the emotions of students, avoiding stressful situations in the classroom. He is able to react quickly to the mood of students by some, sometimes elusive, external signs. He skillfully uses verbal body language, for example, facial expressions of his face, to portray surprise, bewilderment, indignation, and here it is important that students can also quickly recognize the mood of the teacher. The teacher must skillfully switch the types of emotions of students. In stressful situations, it is very important that the teacher is always able to control his emotions. It happens that students intentionally begin to provoke the teacher to aggression. In such a situation, you need to remain calm and not act impulsively. The modern educational process requires ingenuity from the teacher, emotional tension during the lesson, the search for technological techniques to create the most comfortable emotional background for students, where the professional suitability of the teacher is checked. Hence the need to win the respect of children, to be an authoritative, interesting person in their eyes. The teacher refers to the class as a partner who helps to build the path of cognitive search, since the union of students with the teacher begins with equality... and no imperative commands. In fact, for 45 minutes, the teacher becomes the leader of the class, and it depends on him what the class will be.
One of the main goals of humanistic pedagogy is the formation of a student as a subject of his own educational activity. The realization of this goal is impossible without the teacher studying the individual abilities of each student.
Individualization of learning begins already with the gender differences of students. For example, to answer a teacher's question, boys usually think more than girls, although boys are more knowledgeable, their attention is better focused on the subject, and they are able to think logically. Girls also have better adaptability of mind and short-term memory.
Another trait of the student's personality — temperament — is the most stable characteristic of a person, largely influencing the activity, relationships and self-awareness of a person.
There are four types of temperament: choleric, sanguine, melancholic, phlegmatic.
Choleric people tend to have a quick understanding of the essence of issues, quickness in finding the right solution, they quickly move from one case to another. It is difficult for them to do monotonous, slow work. Students with this type of temperament may be offered non-standard tasks that require creativity and initiative. These may be tasks that have not one, but several solutions.
Sanguine people have a serious, balanced temperament; they easily cope with simple tasks that require ingenuity. Sanguine people are not suited to the slow pace of the lesson, template tasks, they need active activity, but at the same time, they need to constantly monitor the quality of work. Since they can forget what they have to do. They can be offered multi-stage tasks designed in such a way that at each stage students can independently control the results of their work, as well as tasks that require the use of motor capabilities.
Phlegmatic people are unperturbed, balanced in character. It is difficult for them to switch from one to another before making a decision, they think about everything for a long time and carefully, strive for a system in their work, it is difficult to lead them astray from their intended path. Such students easily cope with work that requires long-term stress, perseverance, attention. Therefore, it may be difficult for such students to answer the teacher's question.
Phlegmatic people can be offered theoretical tasks that require high long-term stress, as well as tasks where accuracy and accuracy of execution are necessary.
Melancholic are anxious and insecure. They can only work well in familiar surroundings. They get tired quickly, spend a lot of time writing — composing, checking and correcting. Tasks for them should not be too voluminous and make it easy to perform independent verification.
In order to be more successful in managing the classroom, it is desirable for the teacher to learn how to manage the psychological cognitive processes of the child, as well as create conditions for their full development.
In addition, people are divided by type of perception: auditory, visual, kinesthetic.
The visual in his speech often uses words related mainly to vision (to look, to observe, the picture, at first glance, transparent, bright, colorful, as seen, etc.). The auditory is characterized by the use of words related to auditory perception (voice, listen, discuss, quiet, quiet, loud, melodic, etc.). The kinesthetic dictionary mainly includes words describing feelings or movements (grasping, soft, warm, sensory, flexible, good sense of smell, etc.).
As for the peculiarities of attention, it is difficult for a kinesthetic to concentrate his attention, and he can be distracted by anything. When writing homework, visualizers will obediently open the diaries and copy what is set from the blackboard. Audial will once again ask the teacher or a neighbor at the desk — and what was asked at home, at home, they could call back a classmate and clarify what was asked. Kinesthetic — Most often, rummage in their briefcase for a long time; prefer to mark the task directly in the textbook.
Observing the behavior of children at recess will give a lot:
Visual: Most often stays in the classroom if most students leave it. Audial uses change to speak and make noise. For a kinesthetic, a change is necessary to warm up, to move. Audial easily repeat what they have heard. In educational activities, they prefer to count and write, as in discussions. Kinesthetic learn better in practice.
To improve the quality of knowledge, it is necessary to think over tasks in which students could hear, see and can touch what is being said in the lesson.
Memory can also be different: mechanical, visual, auditory, logical, etc. The student shows different using all channels of perception.
Moreover, of course, students differ in the type of nervous system. If the teacher works with students with a weak type of nervous system, it is recommended: do not put them in a situation that requires a quick reaction; if possible, offer to answer not verbally, but in writing, and encourage them more often. When checking homework, depending on the selected verification method (oral interview, written assignment or experiment), the teacher can select a student by his leading sensory channel (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). When studying new material, it is better to choose the one whose period of highest productivity coincides with the middle of the lesson and with a strong type of nervous system. Fixing the material passed in the lesson, it is advisable to invite an auditory student (for oral repetition) or a kinesthetic (for setting up the experience) from among the students whose period of greatest productivity corresponds to the second half of the end of the lesson. With such an organization of the lesson, the teacher uses all the sensory channels of the students, and everyone can receive information in a convenient way. Taking into account individual psychological characteristics in working with students allows the teacher to choose the right management decisions that lead to the improvement of the educational process and improve the quality of education of schoolchildren.
The relationship between education and psychology helps the teacher to organize the completely educational process. The psychology of education uses scientific methods and applies a scientific approach to the study of individual behavior in an educational environment.
In conclusion, it should be noted that classroom management is crucial for education. Today, organization and control in the classroom are key concepts when planning any lesson, including foreign language lessons. There are many factors that affect the pace and effectiveness of the lesson. These factors include the teacher's relationship with students, the style of pedagogical communication and activity, approaches to teaching, and much more. The motivation of students to study directly depends on the teacher. The educational process, discipline and effectiveness of training completely depend on the teacher. The teacher faces a difficult task — despite all the difficulties, to effectively organize the educational process.
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