This article gives you tips on how to teach arithmetic to high school students. It also provides practical and theoretical recommendations for improving the effectiveness of education for children with intellectual disabilities.
Keywords: secondary school, mentally retarded children, mathematics, arithmetic, education system, pedagogy.
The need for an individual and differential approach in shaping students' basic mathematical concepts is due to the fact that disorders in their psychophysical development take many forms. Against the background of organic or functional pathology of the central nervous system, as a rule, they are accompanied by high nervous activity disorders and manifest themselves in a variety of cognitive problems — permanent or temporary, with varying degrees of severity. For intellectually retarded students, the study of mathematical material poses great difficulties, the reasons for which are primarily explained by the peculiarities of the development of the cognitive and emotional-volitional spheres of mentally retarded school students. According to research conducted by experts in the field of characteristics of mentally retarded children, you should pay attention to the following characteristics that are characteristic of them:
— with the underdevelopment of all neuropsychic functions, mainly the permanent dysfunction of abstract forms of thinking; — combination of intellectual disability with arbitrary forms and imbalances of speech, perception, memory, attention and behavior; — Lack of development of cognitive activity is manifested in the lack of logical thinking, visual-effective thinking, the mobility of mental processes, the importance of comparing the surrounding events and phenomena on the basis of important features. — The slow pace of thinking and the inactivity of mental processes determine the inability to adapt the learned method of action in the learning process to new conditions; — Lack of development of thinking affects all mental processes: cognition, memory, attention.
First of all, all the functions of distraction and generalization suffer, the components of mental activity associated with the analytical-synthetic activity of the brain are disrupted. In the emotional-volitional sphere, this is manifested in the lack of development of complex emotions and arbitrary forms of behavior. Although the teaching of mathematics is practical and interrelated with labor education, painting, science, geography, history, and physical education, students with intellectual disabilities must master the existing set of theoretical concepts.
When teaching mathematics to mentally retarded students, it is important to keep in mind that the acquisition of the necessary knowledge should not be in the nature of strict memorization and teaching. The knowledge gained by the students should be conscious. From the point of view of the exhibition, it is necessary to move on to the formation of existing mathematical concepts, to generalize them, and on this basis to carry out practical work. All of this requires students to be more aware of their activities, their actions will be generalized, which is of course very important for correcting the thinking shortcomings of mentally retarded school students. Teaching mathematics regulates students and contributes to the formation of personal qualities such as accuracy, perseverance, will, develops the habit of working, the desire to work, the ability to complete any task. In mathematics, defects in a child's movement are corrected during practical exercises (modeling, drawing, erasing, coloring, cutting, gluing, changing, designing, etc.). However, it is not possible to limit the development of these types of student activities alone, as the tasks of correction, vocational training, social rehabilitation and adaptation are not adequately addressed. By developing students' reproductive activity, the teacher poses and solves a more complex problem — develops their initiative, creative activity, teaches them to use their knowledge first in similarities, and then in new situations, in solving new problems. This is possible not only taking into account the specifics of their cognitive activity, but also their personal qualities, their relationship with the process of learning. Before informing students about this or that knowledge, it is necessary to create a certain positive attitude towards their acceptance and understanding of this knowledge. This is achieved through the creation of a practical situation in which students feel a lack of knowledge to solve a particular mental or educational problem that interests them. Students are given a sense of anticipation for something new and unknown.
Stages of problem solving in arithmetic methods:
Solving textual problems arithmetically is a complex activity, the content of which depends on both the specific problem and the skill of the solver. However, it can be divided into several stages.
- Understand and analyze the content of the issue.
- Search and create a problem solving plan.
- Execute the solution plan. Express a conclusion about the fulfillment of the demand of the problem (answer the question of the problem).
- Check the solution and correct any errors.
Expressing a definitive conclusion about fulfilling a requirement of an issue or answering a question of an issue.
It should be noted that the steps mentioned in the concrete process of solving the problem do not have strict boundaries and are not always fully implemented. For example, sometimes, just by understanding the problem, one can see that the problem is known to him and he knows how to solve it. In this case, the search for a solution is not divided into separate steps, and substantiating each step in performing the first three steps saves the solver from checking after performing the solution. However, a fully logical solution must include all the steps.
Knowing the possible ways to accomplish each of the steps will make the process of solving any problem understandable, expedient, and therefore more successful. The main goal of the first stage of the solution is to understand the whole situation of the solver in the problem, the condition of the problem, its requirements or the meaning of all the terms and symbols contained in the text of the question.
There are several ways to understand the content of a problem:
- What is this issue about?
- What is required to find in the matter?
- What does the phrase «all this time» mean?
- What is known about the actions of each of the participants in the case?
- What is unknown about the issue?
- What is sought: number, value of magnitude, type of relationship?
Re-expression of the text of the problem is a great help in understanding the content of the problem and creating a basis for the search for a solution — to replace the given expression of the situation with another expression that retains all the relationships and quantitative characteristics, but describes them more clearly. It is especially effective to use this tool to split text into manoli parts
Areas of redefinition include: removing unimportant, redundant data; replacing the expression of certain concepts with appropriate terms and vice versa, replacing certain terms with the expression of the meaning of the corresponding concepts; rewrite the text of the problem in a way that is convenient for finding a solution. When solving any problem by algebraic method, after analyzing the content of the problem, the unknown is selected, marked with a letter, the problem is included in the text, and then two expressions are formed on the basis of the relationship in the problem. allows you to write. The roots found in solving the equation are considered from the point of view of the content of the problem, the roots that do not correspond to the conditions of the problem are removed. If the subject is identified by a letter, the remaining roots can answer the question at once. If a non-searchable unknown is identified by a letter, then the searcher is found on the basis of the relationship between the unknown and the searcher identified by the letter.
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