This article provides pedagogical and practical recommendations for developing speech in lower grades of secondary school. There are also practical guidelines for developing speech in children with intellectual disabilities through technology classes.
Keywords: technology, mentally retarded children, pedagogy, speech, auxiliary school, education system.
Today, the care of children and adolescents in need of special assistance, social support of their rights, the organization of the educational process in accordance with the needs and abilities of these children, the equalization of a healthy society is very important. is one of the issues. In the education system for children with special needs, first of all, the needs of the child are studied, the advantages and disadvantages are taken into account. This includes modification, compensation, adaptation, rehabilitation. For example, if a child is deaf, provide them with a hearing aid; unable to walk — use a wheelchair, unable to hold a simple spoon in his hand, provide him with other convenient equipment, etc.
The formation of a child's personality begins in the first days of life. The child expresses his attitude to the being and the people around him on the basis of what he sees and hears every day, the child's assessment of the adult's actions, deeds, events, attitude to people, all this contributes to the formation of the child's spiritual image. affects. Violation of certain conditions necessary for the development of the child, both in the womb and after birth, can lead to various anomalies, namely, physical or mental defects. Severe, abrupt changes in the physical or mental development of children with special needs have a negative impact on the composition of the child's personality. Therefore, special conditions should be created for the upbringing and education of such children, that is, they should be educated in special kindergartens and schools or among their peers who have developed normally, and, if necessary, on the basis of special programs and textbooks. need to be nurtured and nurtured.
In some children, sensory (hearing or vision loss) and gross defects in mental development, as well as movement disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy, can lead to the underdevelopment of all components of children's speech (pronunciation, lexical-grammatical), in all cases due to the fact that they have a specific etiopathogenetic property, require the differential application of methods of correction exposure. The relevance of our graduate work is determined by the fact that the work on the comprehensive elimination of defects in children with developmental disabilities begins with speech education.
Specific aspects of speech development in mentally retarded children have been studied in psychological terms by many authors (V. Petrova, M. Pevzner, I. Carlin, M. Strazulla, S. Borel-Mezonni, Schlesinger, M. Zeeman and others.). According to M.Ye. Khvatsev, D. I. Orlova and V. V. Voronkova, writing disorders are more common in mentally retarded students than in mentally retarded children. As FFRau, LVNeyman, and VIBeltyukov describe, “poor hearing is defined as a decrease in hearing that makes it difficult to comprehend speech, but under specially created conditions (volume amplification, the speaker’s direct proximity to the ear, the use of sound-amplifying devices). llash, etc.) will be able to engage in verbal communication.
General description of speech disorders in mentally retarded children Speech disorders in mentally retarded children and their normalization are determined by high nerve (nerve) activity and specific aspects of mental development. Insufficient development of higher forms of cognitive activity in mentally retarded children is characterized by superficiality of thinking, slow development of speech and qualitative peculiarities, failure to control verbal behavior, incomplete emotional-volitional sphere. Specific features of speech development in mentally retarded children at the level of dementia. Late speech development is characteristic of mentally retarded children. Strong lag is observed during the pre-speech period. If infancy occurs normally from 4 to 8 months of age, in mentally retarded children it occurs between 12 and 24 months of age (IV Carlin. M. Strazulla.) Kassel, Schlezinger, According to M. Zeeman, the first words appear in children with mental retardation from the age of 3 years. Studies by IV Carlin and M. Strazulla show that the first words appear in such children between the ages of 2.5 and 5 years (the rate of first words in children ranges from 10 months to 18 months). up to a month).
Significant lag in speech development in mentally retarded children is seen in the emergence of expressive speech. In this case, the interval between the statement of the first words and the phrase (compound) speech is also longer than in normally developed children. Speech disorders in mentally retarded children have been studied in speech therapy by M. Khvatsev, R.Ye. Levina, G. A. Kashe, D. I. Orlova, E. F. Sobottovich, R. I. Lalayeva, K. K. Karlin. According to these 10 studies, obvious deficiencies in the primary grades of auxiliary school are observed in 40–60 % of children. S.Ya. According to Rubinstein, the reason for speech development in mentally retarded children is «the weakness of the cerebral cortex, the slow development of new differential connections in all analyzers». Due to the slow development of differential conditioned connections within speech hearing analyzers, a mentally retarded child may not be able to distinguish speech sounds for a long time, and may not clearly understand what others are saying. The development of motor skills, including speech motor skills, is slow in mentally retarded children. The accuracy of your speech movement is ensured by two-way control. Like hearing, kinesthetic control also develops vaguely.
In the process of analyzing the specific features of speech in mentally retarded children, V. G. Petrova distinguishes a set of many factors that are considered to be the causes of their speech disorders, and recognizes that the main cause of speech disorders and anomalous development in mentally retarded children is underdeveloped cognitive activity2. The decrease in the level of analytical-synthetic activity is manifested in a complex mental (mental) activity, a disorder of phonemic perception, which differentiates speech sounds. Disorders of cognitive activity lead to difficulties in semantically mastering the language. Therefore, mentally retarded children have difficulty mastering semantically complex words (abstract, generalized) and grammatical forms (e.g., purpose and cause, follow-up conjunctions). Due to the general lack of development of analytical-synthetic activity, the formation of language generalizations, the mastery of language rules is more difficult than in normally developed children. Limited perception of the world around them, weak communication, lack of interest, decreased demand for speech are characterized by slow speech development in mentally retarded children. In addition, they are caused by other factors that lead to speech disorders, ie rhinolalia, mechanical dyslalia as a result of defects in the structure of the speech apparatus; organic stuttering and dysarthria that occur as a result of damage to certain parts of the subcortical part of the brain.
Speech disorders in mentally retarded children are of a systemic (systemic) nature. They show that not all actions related to speech activity are formed to one degree or another, such as weak motivation, decreased demand for speech, gross impairment of speech activity programming, internal program of speech actions, speech program llani, control of speech, violation of preconceived result comparison operations. In mentally retarded children, speech expression is impaired to varying degrees (content, language, sensomotor level). The most underdeveloped are the complex levels (content, language). They require highly formed analytical efforts, synthesis, generalization. In such children, the sensomotor level of speech varies. Speech disorders in mentally retarded children come in a variety of forms and require a differential approach in their analysis. The symptomatology (sum of symptoms) and the mechanism of speech impairment are determined not only by the general underdevelopment of the brain system, but also by the local pathology of the system directly related to speech. This further complicates the appearance of speech disorders in mentally retarded children. Therefore, two groups of oligophrenia are distinguished:
- oligophrenia without speech development;
- atypical oligophrenia, complicated by speech defects.
As in normal children, all forms of speech disorders occur in mentally retarded children (dyslalia, rhinolalia, dysarthria, alalia, dyslexia, dysgraphia, stuttering, aphasia, etc.). The semantic defect plays a key role in the structure of the speech disorder system. Speech impairment in mentally retarded children is characterized by its long-term retention and is difficult to overcome by maintaining it in the period between preschool and upper grades.
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