This article provides information about the features of the development of the elementary mathematical imagination of mentally retarded children of preschool age, that the process of forming the elementary mathematical imagination of mentally retarded children is carried out on a play basis.
Keywords: mentally retarded, figurative, correctional, visual-motor, coordination.
Along with the fact that preschool education is the initial link in the system of continuous education, it is important in the system of further education, in preparing a child for school. It is no coincidence that today this sphere of education rises to the level of state policy. We draw your attention to the fact that a number of decrees, decrees and orders adopted by our state are aimed at a radical reform of the preschool education system. In such state documents as the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated May 8, 2019 No. PP-4312 «the concept of the development of the preschool education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030», the decree of the Ministry of Preschool Education dated June 18, 2018 No.1 «state requirements for the development of early childhood and preschool age», as well as the practical implementation of the state educational program of the preschool educational institution «Ilk Kadam», provides for the solution of issues related to this area.
The President of our country Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev, deeply analyzing this system, drew attention to the smallest aspects that still remain out of sight. It has been established that today the issue of improving state requirements for educational programs and educational and educational plans of preschool educational institutions remains relevant. The material and technical base of the majority of preschool educational institutions does not meet modern requirements. In order to practically eliminate the existing problems, a resolution was adopted «on measures to further improve the preschool education system in 2017–2021».
The development of the mathematical imagination of a mentally retarded child of preschool age depends more on the quality of the pedagogical conditions in which he learns than on the development of the mathematical imagination of normally developing peers. Not a single type of activity characteristic of preschool age in mentally retarded children develops fully without special training. The corrective effect on such a child consists, first of all, in the formation of psychological mechanisms of activity. All components of activity: motivational, meaningful, speed and effectiveness — in children of this category are unformed. Only with adequate and timely correctional and developmental help of mathematical imagination, mentally retarded children can master mathematical concepts. Mastering mathematical concepts is an effective means of correcting mental defects in preschoolers, since the processes of counting, comparing and transforming sets involve the implementation of purposeful intellectual actions. It was shown that the gradual formation of mathematical knowledge affects the weaknesses of the mental activity of children, contributes to the development of various aspects of perception and thinking, all cognitive activity. For the normal development of a child, only a combination of several conditions should exist. The first is related to the state of health (biological factor of development). Preservation of the biological basis makes it possible to develop in accordance with age, but this is not enough.
For the intellectual and personal development of a mentally retarded preschooler, the formation of elementary mathematical concepts is also very important for children with normal intellectual development. She is actively involved in the process of systematically conducted correctional and educational work, an important element of which is the purposeful formation of initial mathematical concepts. The formation of elementary mathematical concepts is impossible without the development of the child's sensory-motor functions, spatial orientation, speech skills, etc. In children with organic brain damage, these functions will be underdeveloped. In infancy and early age, mentally retarded children have extremely low motor and cognitive activity, coordination of movements is impaired, which affects their play activity. Movement disorders in children can manifest themselves mainly in coordination. Children of this category experience difficulties in performing complex coordination movements, reduce the speed and dexterity of performing tasks, violate the rhythm and differentiation of forces, the temporal and spatial parameters of movements.
Coordination abilities largely determine the level of motor abilities necessary for the development of a child's mathematical ideas, first of all, ideas about space, volume, quantity, and these include spatial orientation, differentiation of their muscle sensations and regulation of the level of muscle tension, response to signals from the external environment, maintenance static and dynamic balance, a sense of rhythm. They usually grab their heads, sit, crawl, stand and walk much later than developing children. For many, an independent gait is formed only by the end of the second, and sometimes even the third year of life. Great difficulties arise when gripping and holding objects. The lag extends to both general and fine motor skills and articulation tools. It is expressed in motor discomfort, insufficient coordination of movements, poor transition from one movement to another, which is extremely necessary for the implementation of objective actions in the process of interaction with mathematical material. For a long time and with great difficulties, children develop a number of movements necessary for the formation of motor skills that contribute to spatial orientation (spatial orientation, on their own body, on the plane of the sheet, etc.).
Preschool age is a period of formation in a child of actions that are carried out not only externally, visually, practically, but also internally, mentally. This is due to significant changes in the structure of perception in early and preschool age. A gross violation of sensitivity in mentally retarded children is expressed in the fact that they do not take into account the spatial properties of objects even in objective activity. Mentally retarded children of preschool age without special training do not have visual forms of a given orientation. In most cases, it is replaced by manipulation, has a negative effect on the mastery of graphic activity, the development of mathematical concepts, on the nature of subject-game actions.
A mentally retarded child is characterized by lethargy and fragmented perception. All this complicates the formation of mathematical concepts, does not allow the child to perform calculations based on visual or auditory perception. Children make mistakes when counting objects, sounds, etc. It forms the basis of sensory-perceptual — the ability most significant for the formation of elementary mathematical concepts. Visual-motor, coordination, including sensory ones, do not develop, as a rule, they draw poorly, do not close in lines, have difficulty connecting objects and pictures, cannot assemble a spreading toy, cannot form a whole picture out of cut pictures.
Mentally retarded children can distinguish between simple three-dimensional shapes, colors, shades in accordance with the sample, making a choice in color and size (large / small), that is, in some cases, they reveal the preservation and perception of the properties and qualities of objects. The specificity of the mental activity of such children influences the formation of elementary mathematical concepts and logical structures, which are the main basis for further teaching mathematics. These children have a significant lag in purposeful intellectual activity, as well as underdevelopment of internal speech. It is very difficult for them to understand the conditions for memorizing and preserving a verbal assignment. Mentally handicapped children can be taught to use the language of mathematics by giving them sand, water, blackboard, chalk, pencils, paper and, of course, didactic toys. Most of all, their ideas about time are not formed, the complexity of the development of their ideas about time, first of all, prevents them from being aware of themselves in the scheme of their body, the formation of this other spatial orientation. Such children can determine the spatial arrangement of objects in relation to themselves at the visual level, but they have significant difficulties with spatial orientation according to verbal instructions and independent determination and naming of spatial relations. Children of this category do not know how to rely on knowledge of their body schema, on the ability to determine the location of objects relative to themselves. Compared to healthy developing children, mentally retarded preschoolers have difficulty visually identifying spatial relationships between (around) several objects. Children find it difficult to navigate the sides of their own body and verbally determine the directions — to the right and left of something else. They are often unable to complete assignments following verbal instructions.
In conclusion, we can say that attention is paid to the education system in our country at the level of state policy, since the mathematical activity of pupils is cultivated in a wide variety of conditions: in theatrical activities, in building games, in centers of activity. Knowledge of the manifested strengths of children is important not only for analysis, but also allows them to determine their prospects for further choosing a profession, stimulating mathematical abilities. Taking into account the child's manifested abilities is necessary not only for their development, but also for directing his talent into the appropriate stream. Experiments have shown that games and interactive methods contribute to the development of children's mathematical abilities, create conditions for a wide orientation in mathematics and accumulate a stock of mathematical impressions, create the basis for successful solution of problems «state requirements for the development of children of early and preschool educational age» mentally retarded children are presented on a play basis. Games are the best form of joint activity to develop mathematical content. Learning through play is the most natural state for children. It is important that the play activity of a mentally retarded preschooler is supervised by an adult.
- Appeal to the Oliy Majlis of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh.Mirziyoyev dated January 24, 2020.
- Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated May 8, 2019 No. PP-4312 «concept for the development of the preschool education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030».
- Bariaeva L. B. An integrative model of mathematical education for preschoolers with mental retardation: Dis. Dr. Ped. Sciences: 13.00.03 Moscow, 2005.
- Bariaeva L. B., Zarin A. P. Methods for the formation of quantitative representations in children with intellectual disabilities. — SPb.: Publishing house of the Russian State Pedagogical University im. A. I. Herzen, 2000.