There are no problems, only solutions.
This article provides methodological information on the technology, methods of creating problematic situations and their practical significances in the teaching of English language . Problematic situations are innovative teaching techniques, which encourage students to think, learn and transform different situations with the task. They show not only their basic skills but also more factual knowledge. These situations provide students besides memorization, to use deeper levels of reflection, to reach their own goals and application of information.
There is no doubt that a teacher is required to be creative and understands students’ needs. Each student has own certain deficiencies in different aspects of learning language, but our task is to show and improve their strengths. By using these situations, teachers can build bridges with students and overcome existing difficulties. Students don`t only show their English knowledge but also these situations ask them to work in a team, be well organized and self-discipline. A teacher is required to be creative, innovative, and take into consideration students` interests. I am sure that each lesson should include some elements of creating thinking strategies at every lesson plan.
Students have a chance to succeed even those may not succeed otherwise. Their teacher controls all activities, but students have some opportunities to add something on their own, to use their own thinking abilities. They either expand sentences that already complete or complete unfinished sentences. The aim of this innovation here is that the students are free to use their imagination, within the grammatical constructions of the English language.
Ask the class is divided into small groups; a leader is selected within each group.
The leader provides the model sentence, which the students expand any way they wish, adding adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases and other instruments, which are acceptable.
The sequence is as follows.
1) Each group gets the model sentence from the leader.
2) After the leader provides the sentence, one student adds a single element to expand; a second student adds another element and so on.
3) After a number of expansions, a new model sentence is given, and the entire process is repeated.
Task 1 Expand the next sentence
The model sentence: Those students carried out the task
– Those five students carried out the task.
– Those five students over there carried out the task.
– Those five young students over there carried out the task.
– Those five clever students over there carried out the task.
– Those five clever students over there carried out the English task .
– Those five clever girls who are sitting over their carried out the English task
– Those five clever girls who are sitting over there carried out the English task an hour ago .
Here are some more model situations for Activity
- The dog has chased the cat
- The book was interesting
- The girl has lost her keys
- The children like candies
- The little sister has broken brother`s new IPhone
The grammatical point practiced is determined by the particular element used in the sentence expansion. This activity develops the student`s ability to use the variety of constructions in a meaningful way and make each lesson more productive.
Task 2 Complete the sentence
The class is divided into small groups and a leader is selected in each group. The leader gives the first part of a sentence, and the students are free to complete them with their wish but it should have grammatical and semantic sense.
- The leader gives an example of a particular sentence, and then completes it in different ways.
- Then the teacher gives a new particular sentence and students are to complete them with proper grammatical and semantically sense.
We all decided
We all decided to go on holiday .
We all decided to go to the beach
We all decided to go to the party .
We all decided to go to school on foot .
Here there are some more Particular Sentences for Completion
1 Jane wants her best friend _____________________
2.I rather stay at home than______________________
3.I am sure he would like________________________
4 It is not easy_________________________________
5May be you should be__________________________
The grammar point or points practiced are those contained in the elements used to complete the sentence. This task is meant to develop imagination and creativity rather than practicing special points of grammar structures.
The sentences help students not only to practice language skills but also give them opportunity to show their feelings and we can get sincere responses. Such importance becomes more and more significant as communicative exercises are introduced into language learning process
Task 3 Complete the text
The students are asked to use their own imagination in developing the story line. The teacher gives a text in the form of story without providing the ending. The students are to finish the story.
Although very factual constraints leave in the form of models and guidelines, such tasks perform one more step in gaining independence from pedagogical oversee in the production of expressions in the target language. The sequence is as follows.
- The students listen attentively as the teacher reads aloud. The story will be interrupted before the ending is provided.
- The students, working into small groups, create an ending to the story in three of four sentences. The task is not write sentences in detail, the aim is to finish the story orally, using their written notes.
Example: Sam moved slowly in front, as they started down the mountain =/ It was difficult to Jane to stay on the path and support Sam at the same time. He was only 10 years old and she blamed herself that she didn`t realize how it would be difficult for him. Unfortunately, their camp was far away from them. Suddenly they saw a tiny hut in the distance. As they were exhausted, they decided to rest a little in the house. Sam was glad and moved towards to it, they came in. It was warm in it and it was strange. At this moment, they heard a noise in the corner of the room…..
Riddles and problems ask learners to understand, analyze, compare and evaluate different spheres of a situation. Riddle solving shifts the attention from form content by focusing the students’ efficiency on finding a solution. The enticement of finding a solution should minimize any inhibitions or worry about producing error-free utterances and instead former a real wish to make up messages using the imagination.
The sequence is as follows.
- The teacher gives one riddle to the class. Each student spends a few minutes trying to find a solution individually.
- After 5–6 minutes, the class divides into groups to discuss possible answers. Individuals within a group may have their own unique decision, which compare with the others. In addition, each group should find a unique solution.
- One student from a given group explains his or her group solution to the class. This solution compares to the solution reached by other groups.
A sequence of events
A man goes to the shop and buys a piece of cheese. Then he goes to the pet shop and buy a cat and a mouse. He has to bring the cat, the mouse and cheese to his cat. However, he can only carry one thing at one time.
If he leaves the mouse alone with the cheese, the mouse will eat it. If she leaves the cat alone with the mouse, the cat will eat the mouse. The owner of the pet shop says she`ll make sure nothing happens to anything he leaves in her shop while he is carrying his purchases to the car. In what order does he have to transport the three items?
Task 2 Mr Brown, a former world traveler and recently retired community school teacher, is now able to pursue his favorite hobby in the comfort of his own home. Several diplomas, certificates, and a license to practice his hobby adorn his study where he continues to engage in his favorite pastime, which also happens to be the subject he taught part-time at the community college. He told me of a nightmare he had last week after he fell asleep in his study. The teacher said he dreamed he was on a hunting expedition in an African jungle, far from any civilization. In his nightmare, he found himself alone, without any weapons, and was suddenly surrounded by a lion, a hippopotamus, a leopard, a cheetah, and a ferocious cape buffalo. They were just closing in for the kill when he suddenly awoke from his dream. But was it a dream? Mr Brown said he nearly had a heart attack when he looked around the room, and realized the dream was real after all! What was the teacher’s hobby, and why was he so frightened when he awoke from his dream?
There are many techniques or tools to enhance creative abilities in individuals or groups.
Critical and creative approaches that can be combined with rational approaches and above-mentioned tasks can help teachers to motivate students to solve the tasks and engage actively in communication.