In this article, the role of the media in ensuring information and psychological security of a person is analyzed socially and psychologically. The article also discusses the scientific and theoretical aspects of some of the research carried out in this area.
Keywords: psychology, sociology, information, security, personality, information and psychological security, management.
В данной статье роль СМИ в обеспечении информационной и психологической безопасности человека анализируется социально-психологическим. В статье также рассматриваются научные и теоретические аспекты некоторых исследований, проводимых в этой области.
Ключевые слова: психология, социология, информация, безопасность, личность, информационно-психологической безопасности, менеджмент.
The results of many scientific studies show that the influence of mass communication on a person can be cognitive (affect thinking and learning), behavioral or emotional; that media exposure can also be direct, indirect, short-term, long-term, intermittent, or cumulative. Thus, basically, the psychological impact of mass media messages (the effect of the information flow) is carried out on the cognitive (cognitive), affective (emotional) and behavioral structures of a person (a group of people). This, accordingly, is reflected in the mental processes, states and properties that are actualized by the audience when interacting with these materials: the formation of attitudes, the expansion of people's ideas, the formation of feelings of concern, fear, the impact on the moral state and the degree of alienation in society, activation (or canceling the activation) of any activity, etc.
When analyzing information and psychological security in mass communication situations, it is important to take into account the following criteria:
– trust in information: convincing information that gives new criteria and forms of behavior;
– interest in / relevance of information: information, without which it is impossible to achieve the goal of the system;
– comprehensibility / consistency of information: reformulation of the initial information into information that is clear for all members of society, readable, understandable and convincingly gives new algorithms and stereotypes of behavior.
In the interaction of the audience with media materials, such psychological defenses of the individual as leaving can be actualized:
– disconnection from certain media channels, from viewing specific television and radio programs, refusal to read some newspapers, articles, headings, etc.;
– blocking (fencing, obstacle): increasing negativism, criticality, emotional alienation, psychological barriers are also used, belittling the source (internal ridicule, debunking authority, etc.), inattention (distraction and switching attention to other objects not related to content impact), etc.;
– management: changing the popularity rating of certain television channels, reducing or increasing the purchasing power of periodicals, etc.;
– concealment (camouflage): postponing reactions, hasty conclusions and assessments, delay or refusal from actions and deeds caused by informational influence (for subsequent rational and balanced analysis with the involvement of additional data).
At the Department of Political Psychology, S. Petersburg State University, the process of mass communication is studied systematically and comprehensively: both the media messages themselves (from the point of view of their effectiveness, content, fullness) in relation to the specifics of their presentation and identification of accompanying effects, and the features of decoding these messages by various social groups are considered. In recent years, the department has been actively conducting theoretical and empirical studies of assessing the quality of socio-political messages (objectivity, completeness, intelligibility, consistency, practicality, etc.) circulating in the media, both in terms of analyzing their psychological content and in terms of studying audience views.
So, for example, the connections were revealed between the perceptions of the media audience about the various qualities of socio-political messages:
1) with psychological defenses that are actualized in a person in mass communication situations (avoidance, control, hiding, blocking);
2) with mental states (criticality, anxiety, tension, fatigue, curiosity, indignation, etc.);
3) with other criteria (loss of confidence in the source of information, decrease in the ability of constructive thinking, etc.).
The results of the conducted empirical scientific studies show that the feeling of incompleteness of the information provided and the low degree of trust in the media messages can actualize the desire of the audience to break off contact with the information in order to protect the psyche from unwanted external influences. The clarity of information for the respondents does not exclude the possibility of forming a series of critical judgments about it and its distributors, as well as assessing it as insufficient, implausible, undermining confidence in the carriers of a different position. Thus, we see that the media audience today is assigned an active, targeted role, which is the result of the communication process. The attitude towards the content of media texts depends on the attitude towards the source of information and the observance of the rules for the presentation of messages in the conditions of mass communication.
The psychological effects produced by socio-political information at the individual and group levels mean that the message conveyed through the media can be transformed at both the individual and group levels. This should be taken into account in order to understand the consequences of the dissemination of socio-political information of a certain content.
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