The content of the work on the formation of the semantic field of subject vocabulary in older preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №42 (384) октябрь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 10.10.2021

Статья просмотрена: 11 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Мартынова, В. В. The content of the work on the formation of the semantic field of subject vocabulary in older preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment / В. В. Мартынова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 42 (384). — С. 188-190. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/384/84549/ (дата обращения: 30.11.2021).



The importance of the problem of lexical-semantic development has been proven in various sources, including widely covered in scientific research by authors such as M. M. Alekseeva, A. N. Bogatyreva, O. S. Ushakov, V. I. Yashina and others. The connection between the subject of the surrounding world and the concept has long worried scientists, turning into a more complex problem of relationships. The study of the lexical and semantic side of the speech of children is associated with the systematization of the knowledge and ideas of the child, with the laws of preserving this knowledge in the language code, as well as with the perception of the surrounding world.

In children with general speech underdevelopment, impaired lexical development is expressed in the late beginning of the formation of lexical systemicity and, therefore, semantic fields.

For the first time, such scientists as G. Ipsen and J. Trier began to study this issue. Following them, many scientists (SG Shafikov, TI Vendina, B.Yu. Gorodetsky, etc.) began an in-depth study of this topic. In modern linguistics, the term «semantic field» is given the following definition: «a set of linguistic units that can be combined either on the basis of a «common meaning «or» common seme», or specific semantic relations» [2].

The formation of semantic fields of subject vocabulary in preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment is worse than in normal children. Preschoolers with OHP have the following problems: limited vocabulary, incorrect and indistinct use of words in their speech, verbal paraphrase, and so on. Also, children do not know how to competently, coherently, and clearly express their thoughts out loud. They possess a set of words and syntactic constructions in a limited and simplified form, experience significant difficulties in programming an utterance, in synthesizing individual elements into a structural whole, and in selecting material for a particular purpose.

Thanks to the research of R. I. Lalaeva and N. V. Serebryakova, it can be argued that children with general speech underdevelopment have problems in the lexical-semantic and structural-semantic organization. Such children do not know how to competently, coherently, and clearly express their thoughts out loud. They possess a set of words and syntactic constructions in a limited and simplified form, experience significant difficulties in programming an utterance, in synthesizing individual elements into a structural whole, and in selecting material for a particular purpose [3].

After a thorough study of the literature in this area, we decided to conduct practical research. During the experimental substantiation of the content of speech therapy work on the formation of the semantic field of subject vocabulary in older preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment, we carried out the method of E. F. Arkhipova [1], aimed at studying the formation of the semantic fields of subject vocabulary. This technique consisted of four series of tasks. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the majority of preschoolers with OHP are at an average level — 60 %, 30 % of children are at a low level of development, and only 10 % have a high level.

Thus, we can say that children of senior preschool age with OHP are at a low and medium level of formation of semantic fields and need not only vocabulary development, but also specially organized correctional education. And then the systematic, step-by-step, specially organized speech therapy work on the formation of the semantic field of the subject vocabulary of older preschool children will qualitatively and quantitatively change their vocabulary.

We believe that it is imperative to include the work on the formation of the semantic field in your speech therapy activity. Moreover, it is necessary to do this in accordance with the calendar-thematic planning, so that the children learn all the lexical material well. To better understand how to carry out the work on the formation of the semantic field, it is necessary to consider the structure of the field, which has a clear sequence. For clarity, we present the structure in the form of a diagram:

Having done a lot of work and considering all the age characteristics of children, we present the content of the work on the formation of semantic fields of subject vocabulary using the example of the lexical topic «Trees in the autumn forest»:

Stage

Lexical material

Content of work

Examples of games and tasks

Semantic field of the word «Tree»

Related words

Trees, wooden, sapling, wood, tree, piece of wood.

Dictionary Extension

Formation of new words by suffix method

«Analogy»

«I know five trees»

«cLassification»

verbs

What does it do? It grows, rustles, turns yellow, falls, bears fruit.

What to do? Cut down, water, plant, paint, paint.

Dictionary Extension

Matching verbs

with a noun

«What does a tree do?"

«What does a person do with a tree»

adjectives

Blooming, old, young, slender, oak, high, low.

Dictionary Extension

Matching adjectives

with a noun

«Which leaf fell from the tree?"

«Describe the tree»

synonyms

Plant, wildlife, flora..

Dictionary ExtensionУмение находить общие признаки

«Call it another word»

antonyms

Bush, flower, grass.

Dictionary Extension

Ability to find antonyms

«Say the opposite»

verbal logic problems

Matching nouns with numerals

Development of thinking

Word formation of words in a suffix way

Drafting a proposal

«The fourth extra»

«Make a sentence out of these words»

«Count the trees»

Thus, we can conclude that older preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment are characterized by difficulties in the formation of semantic fields of subject vocabulary. The effectiveness of speech therapy work on the formation of semantic fields of subject vocabulary of older preschoolers with general speech underdevelopment is ensured by observing the following conditions:

– vocabulary training is carried out in accordance with the structure of the semantic field (nuclear word → related words → verbs → adjectives → synonyms → antonyms → verbal logical problems);

– work on the formation of the semantic field is carried out within the framework of the study of lexical topics in accordance with the calendar-thematic planning.

References:

  1. Arkhipova, E. F. Erased dysarthria in children [Text]: a textbook on speech therapy work with children with erased dysarthria for speech therapists, teachers, students of defectological faculties of pedagogical universities, parents. — M.: AST: Astrel, 2007.-- 331 p.
  2. Gorodetsky, B.Yu. On the problem of semantic typology [Text]: a book for the study of linguistic theory — M.: Moscow State University, 1971. — 415 p.
  3. Lalaeva, R. I. Formation of vocabulary and grammatical structure in children [Text] / R. I. Lalaeva, N. V. Serebryakova // Soyuz Publishing House. — 2001 — S. 207.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): OHP, AST.


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