Improvement of technology of producing transparent juices using enzymes | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Improvement of technology of producing transparent juices using enzymes / Д. К. Максумова, З. А. Гаффарова, Д. Э. Зуннунова [и др.]. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 32 (374). — С. 6-9. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/374/83456/ (дата обращения: 23.01.2022).



To obtaining significant profits in the industrial processing of agricultural raw materials — the creation of waste-free technologies that introduce scientific and technological achievements as well as current production, is one of the most important problems. The main product in fruit processing is fruit juice and concentrate, and pressed fruit puree is a semi-finished product, candied fruit is extracted from waste, and oil for adding to animal feed is waste-free technology. Juice production is the most dynamically developing sector in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Studying the chemical composition of raw materials, developing scientifically, processing technologies based on existing experience in the production of fermented juices.

Introduction. To obtain significant profits in the industrial processing of agricultural raw materials — the creation of waste-free technologies that introduce scientific and technological, as well as current production achievements, is one of the most important problems.

The main product in fruit processing is fruit juice and concentrate, and pressed fruit puree is a semi-finished product, candied fruit is extracted from waste, and oil for adding to animal feed is waste-free technology. Juice production is the most dynamically developing sector in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main reason for this is that the country produces a large number of fruits and vegetables and is an agro-industrial country. At this stage, the quantities and assortment of juices increase. Because juice consumption is increasing all over the world. The reason for this is the high nutritional value of juices and high profitability of production. The production of juices requires the construction of facilities — factories, raw materials, fuels, water, labor, marketing of finished products. These plants must comply with European standards for finished products. For this, the main condition for the development of this sphere will be the provision of specialized laboratories equipped with modern equipment and highly qualified technologists. To meet these requirements, European lines and equipped laboratories are needed. Among the countries of the world, the Republic of Uzbekistan produces a large number of products with a rich chemical composition, rich in medicinal and with high nutritional value. They can also be processed for winter consumption, and produced for other countries of the world and will carry out wholesale trade and make big profits. For this purpose it is necessary to produce refined juice, to convert it into juice concentrate and prepare it for export in large quantities of aseptic tars. As a result of this idea, processing enterprises will be established in remote areas, there will be created work places and productions for sale.

The following problems exist in the production of fermented juices:

— Studying the chemical composition of raw materials, developing scientifically based processing technologies based on existing experience in the production of fermented juices; Experimental processing of fruit juices using modern fermentation technology for starch and pectin biopolymers in fermented juice. Technologies introduced into production:

The technological scheme of fruit processing has been created. In this line, the sequence of operations and practically all the parameters of their execution are set, such as time, temperature, pressure, speed. The line includes peeling and drying as industrial raw materials for extracting oil from seeds for complex processing, sedimentation of juices and obtaining concentrate from them, as well as for complex processing of fruits; The aromatic component of the fruit is extracted in a separate evaporator and in a condenser working with a solvent; The practical part of the dissertation is obtaining the maximum amount of juice from fermented pulp and the stage of juice precipitation after pasteurization and cooling.

The increase in production capacities, the expansion of the assortment, and the improvement of the quality of fruits and vegetables in the food industry and canning enterprises are directly related to the growth of scientific and technological development. In general, devices play an important role in improving the productivity and efficiency of food companies. Instruments and equipment used in the field of food and canning are manufactured by the engineering industry as part of an intermittent or continuous process. Currently, many foreign lines are used in canning and food companies.

Methods and materials.

Objects of study. The mass fraction of vitamin C in the production of juices, the mass fraction of carbohydrates, the proportion of fiber, the dry matter content in the juice, as well as their physicochemical parameters and nutritional value were determined using common methods.

The acidity of the juice was measured using a measurement method (Electrode Le 409 method) using a ph meter and indicator (litmus paper).

The amount of dry matter was determined by the express method using a manual refractometer.

Determination of the mass fraction of sodium chloride. Weigh 3 grams of crushed product and put in a conical pipe 200–250 mm. Place distilled water into the flask and mix for 15 minutes using the rubber tube at the end. Then filtered. Take 10–20 ml of filtered vial with a pipette and spills 2–3 drops to 5 % acid potassium with chromium and titrated with 0.05 N nitrogen silver. The amount of salt is calculated as follows.

=

here,

0.009 — the content of sodium chloride is the equivalent of 0.05 n acid solution of silver nitrate. g / ml;

K is the correction factor of the normalizing solution;

A is the volume of a solution of silver in nitrogen;

V is the volume of solution in ml;

s — vial, g.

Total carbohydrate levels are based on a sulfate-phenolic reaction. A sample of the test product is filled into a 0.5 ml tube. Add 0.5 ml of 5 % phenol solution and incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature (24°C) for decomposition. 2.5 ml of sulfuric acid was added to the mixture, the reaction was stopped and the FEK wavelength was recorded at 480 nm. The results were compared with optical density on a calibration graph and the amount of carbohydrates was determined.

Results and discussing. The increase in production capacities, the expansion of the assortment, and the improvement of the quality of fruits and vegetables in the food industry and canning enterprises are directly related to the growth of scientific and technological development. In general, devices play an important role in improving the productivity and efficiency of food companies. Instruments and equipment used in the field of food and canning are manufactured by the engineering industry as part of an intermittent or continuous process. Currently, many foreign lines are used in canning and food companies.

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  1. Acceptance of raw materials. Apples delivered to the enterprise pass laboratory tests. When determining the quality of apples, chosen moderate samples from the batch. Apples are thoroughly washed before sampling. The average sample obtained is studied by organoleptic properties in laboratory conditions.
  2. Inspection imported raw materials are cleaned of iodine, especially rotten raw materials, inspection is carried out in two ways; using manual labor and mechanical. Inspection is carried out on roller and belt conveyors.
  3. Sorting raw materials of different varieties, dividing them into two different types, and delivering them to the lines of jam, jam, jam, compote and juice. For jam, the fruits are sorted well ripe, with a good structural texture.
  4. Washing this process is carried out in two stages. The raw materials are first washed in large pools, and in the second stage, the raw materials are washed in showers.
  5. Cleaning after washing, the raw materials are cleaned from cuttings on special trays or conveyor belts and cut with the knife to the desired size.
  6. Baking raw materials are placed in open vats, and fructose syrup is added to the bulk. To a certain extent, jam is cooked, then jam is cooled.
  7. Packaging — our finished products are packed in glass jars with a capacity of 500 ml of 1000 ml, which meet the requirements of GOST and do not affect the product during transportation, storage and sale. Then it is transferred to the next process.
  8. Sterilization — products placed in containers are transferred to the sterilization process. Sterilization is carried out in autoclaves at temperatures above 1000C.
  9. Storage — the finished product is sent for storage and stored there for a certain period of time. The temperature is constantly monitored.
  10. Sale — the goods will be sent to stores for sale.

Conclusion. Currently, an important problem has been solved, such as an increase in the assortment and quantity of fruit and vegetable juices, which allows increasing the number of klepta, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements in food products. Juices have been researched and applied in two main areas. Prescriptions for new types of juices were presented. In the future, the widespread use of unconventional raw materials is expected to reach the stage of innovation.

References:

  1. Aseptic puckaging of Fruit juices / Food technology, USA, 1984, N3, pp. 63–66.
  2. Rao M. A., Moyer J. C., Wooster G. D. and Piontek E. A.: Extraction of apple juice with a solid bowl decanter centrifuge. Food technology. 29(7), 32–38, 1975.
  3. Peignax E. Fiche technique // Fruits Legumes. -1987. — № 40. P. 55- 57.
  4. Sh.Khurambaev, К.Dodaev, F.Eshmatov. General problems of groundotype crops processing technology // Papers of scientific seminar meeting of winners of “Istedod” Foundation of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. 14.11.2005 China. Shanghai. — P. 28–29.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): FEK, GOST, USA.


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