Analysis of behavioral competencies in project management: leadership, result orientation and productivity | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Экономика и управление

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №23 (365) июнь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 07.06.2021

Статья просмотрена: 11 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Сергазиева, А. Т. Analysis of behavioral competencies in project management: leadership, result orientation and productivity / А. Т. Сергазиева, А. Ж. Сергазиев. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 23 (365). — С. 425-429. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/365/82093/ (дата обращения: 22.01.2022).



A review of literature concerning the determination of competence, professionalism and qualifications is conducted. Approaches of competence determination in the sphere of project management are considered. A refined definition of «competence» has been formulated. The approach of determining competence of the project manager based on the matching method is proposed.

Key words : project management, project manager, competency, leadership, result orientation, productivity.

Nowadays, we are currently seeing a growing interest in project management. Complexity and uncertainty are growing in project environments. It is time to think about how to train project managers to cope with their complexity and growing uncertainty. The development of competencies of project managers is organizations is an important factor for improving the effectiveness of project management and, therefore, the effectiveness of the organization.

R. White treats competence as a derivative of curiosity and research behavior, which are based on a motive for efficiency. Thus, a sense of effectiveness is the result of a person’s awareness of his ability to influence the world around him [1].

The success of a project manager is based on the achievement of his project goals within certain constraints in terms of time, budget and resources; on the completion of the project within the framework of clear criteria, standards and specifications; and understanding of changes in priorities that may occur. In different projects, one of the factors that can lead to a failure in project management will be the recruitment of the wrong project manager. Muller and Turner [2] argue that while management competencies are sometimes significant, emotional competencies always make a significant contribution to project success.

Competency is «demonstrated ability to perform work in a project environment that leads to the expected results, based on defined and accepted standards» (PMCDF 2nd edition, p. 2).

«Competency is the behavior demonstrated by a person in the process of effectively completing tasks within a given organization». [3]

«Competence is the main feature of a person, which allows him to perform work, fulfill a social role or act in a certain situation at the highest level».

«In essence, competencies are at the core of behavior, they are necessary to achieve the desired result. Competencies are what you can demonstrate».

Many project management tools and techniques are specific to project management. However, understanding and applying knowledge, tools and techniques recognized as good practice is not enough for effective project management.

In research, scientists Udo Nathalie and Koppensteiner Sonja identified three areas of project management competency: knowledge, proven experience and personality. Each area of competence is built around specific “pillars”. The field of knowledge has three pillars. The first component contains general managerial skills, such as leadership, negotiation, communication, team building and other personnel management skills that are necessary in any managerial position. The second pillar contains knowledge of generally accepted areas of project management, including tools used in these areas, such as project scope management, project time management, and project cost management. The last column contains industry-specific management knowledge, such as a life cycle management and product development methodology. The proven experience competency area includes track record, hours of project management exposure, size and complexity of project managed and independent references. Years of experience do not necessary always give a good competency rating.

The personality area, arguably the most important one, has two pillars. The first pillar contains personality characteristics such as can-do attitude, confidence, enthusiasm, open mindedness, adaptability, and personal integrity. The second pillar contains people management skills such as ability to communicate, ability of motivation, ability to influence and political sensitivity. The political sensitivity attribute is very important for project managers. Projects are multidimensional and are inherently affected by politics. The key is to be aware of politics, to work with them, but not be part of them [4]

Key competencies in accordance with the international initiative GAPPS: Performance Based Competency Standards for Program Managers are considered Technical, Contextual and Behavioral Competencies.

Technical competencies

Technical competence- to implement projects in a structured way that includes the use of terminology, concepts, and project management processes [5]. Technical competencies determines what people need to know and be able to do in order to effectively fulfill their role. In this range are the elements of competency necessary to initiate and start, manage the implementation and complete the project.

Elements of technical competence are Project management success, stakeholders, requirements and objectives of the project, project risk and opportunity, quality, design organization, team work, problem solving, project structures, the design of the project, time and phases of the project, resources, costs and finances, purchasing and contracts, changes, monitoring and control, information and documentation, communication, project Launch, closing a project.

Contextual competencies

Contextual competencies related to project management within the organizational and external environment [5]. This section outlines elements of contextual competence. It describes the concepts related to a project, program or portfolio, as well as their relationship with the organization or organizations involved in the project.

Elements of contextual competencies are project-oriented management, program- oriented management, portfolio- based management, implementation of projects, programs and portfolios, permanent organization, entrepreneurship, systems, products and technology, HR management, health, safety, labor protection and the environment, finance, legal aspects.

Behavioral competencies

Behavioural competencies associated with personal relationships inside the defined boundaries of the project [5]. Behavioral competencies describe preferred and encouraged behavior at work.

Elements of behavioral competencies are leadership, participation and motivation, self-control, self-confidence, relaxation, openness, creativity, focus on results, productivity, coordination, negotiations, conflicts and crises, reliability, attention to values, ethics.

According to the author, Kirsi Liikamaa, competency is defined as a capability or ability; it consists of a set of alternate behaviors organized around an underlying construct. Competencies require both action and intent. There are three clusters of competencies differentiating outstanding from average performers. The clusters are cognitive competencies, such as system thinking and pattern recognition; emotional intelligence competencies, including self-awareness and emotional self-control; and social intelligence competencies, including social awareness and relationship management competencies. Thus, competencies are a behavioral approach to emotional, social and cognitive intelligence [6].

Results

The success of project management largely depends on the project Manager's ability to lead the project team. The development of leadership qualities is particularly critical at the present time, due to the growing market needs for the implementation of large and complex projects. A leader in a project management team can be an inspiration and an example to guide the entire team. It can instill the values that will help bring projects to completion on time, efficiently, and with resource savings. It can create a world that you want to belong to and thus attract the best specialists.

To do this, you need to learn to think like a leader, understand the trends of personal development as a leader of the project team, become an emotionally competent leader who can motivate himself and the team, adapt to new conditions and be able to manage relationships in the project team.

Leadership

Leadership involves giving orders and motivating subordinates to perform their roles or tasks, which leads to the implementation of project tasks. This competence is vital for the project Manager. Leadership is an essential element throughout the project lifecycle. It becomes particularly important when the project is facing difficulties, when changes are needed, or when there is uncertainty about the future course of action. Leadership should activate the competencies of all project managers in a way that is understood and accepted by the entire team. The chosen management style includes: behavioral models, communication methods, attitude to conflicts and criticism, ways to control the behavior of team members, the decision-making process, and the scope and types of delegation of authority.

Consider in Table 1 a model of the leader’s behavior in the project team.

Table 1

Model behavior of an effective and ineffective project manager (Leadership)

Adequate behavior

The behavior demanding correction

He can delegate tasks, is confident in his subordinates, develops and teaches them to act according to his expectations.

Does not delegate tasks, does not develop and does not teach his subordinates.

He has a vision, clearly sets out, supports and brings it to life.

He can be immersed in his thoughts, easily changes direction, has no vision, does not support ideas.

Possesses innate authority, people listen to him and trust him.

He constantly has to prove his point of view, subordinates question his point of view.

Delegates SMART groups of work corresponding to the abilities of team members and gives them freedom of work.

Manages without using SMART principles, limits the range of actions of his subordinates, forces and controls them.

During the analysis, the alleged behavioral qualities of the project manager-Leader and the formal project manager were identified.

Result Orientation

Result orientation involves focusing the team's attention on key tasks in order to achieve optimal results for all involved parties. The project Manager must ensure the results of the project, which will satisfy all stakeholders. This also applies to all agreed changes made to the project already in the course of its work. By focusing on results, the project Manager should still be aware of and respond to any ethical, legal, or environmental issues that may affect the project.

Project results can be grouped into: main performance results and main project results, results for customers, results for society, and results for other participating parties. The project Manager needs to manage these results in order to make sufficient decisions.

Table 2

Model behavior of an effective and ineffective project manager ( Result orientation )

Adequate behavior

The behavior demanding correction

Acting like an entrepreneur

Just keeping order

Seeks to bring it to the end

Doesn't finish it all

He casts doubt on the current state of affairs, is constantly looking for possible ways to improve it

Always accepts the state of affairs as it is. Does not question the current state of affairs.

Always looking for solutions that would not entail a change in plan

Does not show creativity in finding solutions. Every problem turns into a change in plan.

Productivity

Productivity is the ability to use time and resources cost-effectively to produce a specified end product and meet the expectations of stakeholders. This competence also covers the use of methods, systems and procedures in the most efficient way. Productivity is a fundamental element of project management, at least if applied to the proper issues.

To ensure that the resources available to the project are used productively, detailed planning, scheduling, and budgeting for all activities must be carried out. In order for the results achieved to meet expectations, productivity must become part of the organizational culture, part of the project Manager and his team. If necessary, productivity can be improved through training or mentoring.

Table 3

Model behavior of an effective and ineffective project manager (Productivity)

Adequate behavior

The behavior demanding correction

Has a clear idea of project productivity and behaves accordingly

It does not have a clear concept and does not communicate on performance issues, does not set an example.

Can delegate tasks, trusts others; leads an exclusive management strategy

He tries to complete the tasks himself and has little trust in others. Does not delegate tasks to subordinates.

He conducts skillful change management, at the earliest stage informs about the impossibility of fulfilling the plan, offers management his decisions and alternatives. Management feels that the situation is under control.

Promises new functionality and end products, not making sure that changes can be made without additional allocation of resources. At a later stage, it makes unexpected changes to the plan. Management feels that the situation is not under control.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be stated that the result of this study expresses views regarding the competencies that are important for work of the project manager and success of a project. Competence is the possession of a circle of issues in which a person has knowledge, experience, which makes it possible to judge something, determining the possibilities and skills of a person in any field of activity.

Based on the results of this analysis, the presented models provide an opportunity to understand the inevitable reasons for inefficiency and inconsistency of team work, to focus on helping the group reach a productive result as soon as possible. During the analysis, the alleged behavioral qualities of the project manager-Leader and the formal project manager were identified.

References:

  1. Субочев Н. С., Архипова Т. Г. С 89 Компетентностный подход в управлении персоналом: учебное пособие / Н. С. Субочев, Т. Г. Архипова; Волгоградский институт управления — филиал ФГБОУ ВО РАНХиГС. — Волгоград: Издательство Волгоградского института управления — филиала РАНХиГС, 2016. — 1 электрон. опт. диск (CD-ROM). — Систем. требования: IBM PC с процессором 486; ОЗУ 64 Мб; CD-ROM дисковод; Adobe Reader 6.0. — Загл. с экрана.
  2. Müller R., Turner J. R. Matching the project manager’s leadership style to project type. International Journal of Project management 2007: 25, 21–32.
  3. Анцупов, А. Я. Социально-психологическая оценка персонала: учеб. пособие [Текст] / А. Я. Анцупов, В. В. Ковалев. — М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2006. — 303 с.
  4. Udo, N. & Koppensteiner, S. (2004). What are the core competencies of a successful project manager? Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2004—EMEA, Prague, Czech Republic. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute. https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/core-competencies-successful-skill-manager-8426
  5. Сорокин А. П. Стандартизация подходов к определению компетенций участников проектной деятельности организаций // Инновационные процессы и корпоративное управление: VIII Междунар. Заоч. науч.-практ. конф., 1–15 апреля 2016 г.,г, Минск / В. В. Апанасович [и др.]. Минск: Национальная библиотека Беларуси,2016. С. 236–244.
  6. Kirsi Liikamaa. Developing a Project Manager's Competencies: A Collective View of the Most Important Competencies -https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978915003066?via %3Dihub
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): CD-ROM, SMART, EMEA, GAPPS, IBM, PMCDF, PMI, VIII, Волгоградский институт управления, минск.


Ключевые слова

productivity, project management, leadership, project manager, competency, result orientation
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