The purpose of this research paper is to examine for the purpose of organizational development the premier step and pace to take in a logical betterment of the organization is change, and change is inevitable in a progressive culture and facing the challenges for changes is the responsibility of the managers. There are external forces for change due to technological, globalization and workforce diversity and changes due to internal forces as work climate, changes in managerial personnel. Here with also define how individual and organizational effectiveness increase through with applying behavioral science principles a practices in organization.
Keywords: globalization, development, challenges, organizational, effectiveness , improve, professional.
There is nothing permanent except change. It has become an inescapable fact of life, a functional aspect of historical evolution. Change is inevitable in a progressive culture. Change in fact, is accelerating in our society. Revolutions are taking place in political, scientific, technological, and institutional areas. Organizations cannot completely insulate themselves from this environmental instability. Chane is induced by the internal and external forces. Meeting this challenge of change is the primary responsibility of management. An organization lacking adaptability to change has no future. Adaptability to chane is a necessary quality of good management. Modern managers have the responsibility to devise management practices that best meet the new challenges and make use of the opportunities for the growth of the organization. The topic of managing change is one that comes closest to describing the totality of a manager’s job. Practically everything a manager does is in some way concerned with implementing change.
Organizational development is a relatively new area of interest for business and the professions. While the professional development of individuals has been accepted and fostered by a number of organizations for some time, there is still ambiguity surrounding the term organizational development. The basic concept of both professional development and organizational development is the same, however, with an essential difference in focus. Professional development attempts to improve an individual’s effectiveness in practice, while organizational development focuses on ways to improve an organization’s overall productivity, human fulfillment, and responsiveness to the environment (Cummings & Huse, 1988). These goals are accomplished through a variety of interventions aimed at dealing with specific issues, as well as through ongoing processes.
This chapter provides an overview of both change and organizational development. Educators, including those in the judiciary, must be familiar with the dynamics of organizational change, since all educational activities, both at the individual and organizational level, deal with effecting change. Organizational development and change efforts go hand-in-hand; judicial educators who are interested in effecting change within their organizations must first thoroughly understand the dynamics of change. They must think in terms of the court system and the judicial education apparatus as organizations for which they may play a role as change agent. Within different parts of these systems, judicial educators may play different roles in the change process.
Organizational development will also be discussed in this chapter. One specific OD strategy, team-building, will be examined in some depth. This strategy, if institutionalized effectively, can reduce the need for outside consultants. It is important to include a chapter on organizational change and development in this manual to address issues within the larger frameworks that exist for most judicial educators. Change affects every individual and every organization. Moreover, all of the components of the program planning sequence discussed in this manual are administered within the setting of an organization, a committee or board, or some type of team. As more and more work gets accomplished through teams, it becomes increasingly important to learn how to translate organizational concepts to the small group environment. The team approach is often being used to accomplish short-term projects, such as planning programs, conducting a needs assessment, or developing a new curriculum. A team’s capacity to create a shared vision for the task at hand and work together in the midst of a turbulent environment underlies its ability to be effective. Organizational change and development is a fitting summary chapter for this judicial educator’s manual since it deals with both effecting change (underlying much of education) and managing change.
Organizational Change. Organizational change refers to a modification or transformation of the organization’s structure, processes, or goods. The most flexible organizations have a culture that (a) values change, and (b) managers who know how to implement changes effectively.
– Hiring a new employee-changing the work group
– Purchasing a new piece of-changing workflow
– All require knowledge of how to manage change effectively.
Forces for change in organizations
More and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment the, in turn requires these organizations to adapt; change has become the norm in most organizations. Plant closing, business failures, mergers and acquisitions, and downsizing have become common experiences for most organizations.
- External Forces: when the organization’s general or task environment changes, the organizations success often rides on its ability and willingness to change as well. Many external changes bombard the modern organizations and make change inevitable. The globalization of competition, and demands that organizations take greater responsibility for their impact on the environment. These forces are discussed below.
(a) Technological change, (b) globalization, (c) social and political changes, (d) workforce diversity, (e) Managing Ethical Behavior.
(a) Internal Forces: besides reacting to or anticipating changes on the outside, an organization may change because someone on the inside thinks a new way of doing things will be beneficial or even necessary. These internal forces are discussed below.Changes in Managerial Personnel,
(b) Declining Effectiveness,
(c) changes in work climate,
(d) deficiencies in the existing System,
(f) Employee expectations.
Forms of Change
Change has become the norm inmost organizations. Adaptiveness, flexibility and responsiveness are terms used to describe the organizations that will succeed in two basic forms of change in organizations that will succeed in meeting the competitive challenges that businesses face. There are two basic forms of change in organizations: Planned change and unplanned change.
(a) Planned Change: is change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the organization. It is an intentional, goal-oriented activity.
(b) Unplanned Change: not all change is planned. unplanned change is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen; responsiveness to unplanned change requires tremendous flexibility and adaptability on the part of organizations.
(c) The individual or group that undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization is known as a change agent. change agents can be of two types:
1) Internal Change Agents,
2) External Change Agents
Resistance to Change
People often resist change in a rational response based on self-interest; Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Resistance can be overt implicit, immediate or deferred; is it easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. The sources of resistance to change can be categorized into two sources: individual and organizational.
- Individual Resistance: one aspect of mankind that has remained more or less constant is his innate resistance to change; individuals resist change because they attach great preference to maintaining the status quo. Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic human characteristics such a perceptions, personalities and needs.
- Organizational Resistance: organizations, by their very nature are conservative; they actively resist change.
Managing Resistance to Change
The traditional view of resistance to change treated it as something to be overcome, and many organizational attempts to reduce the resistance have only served to intensify it; the contemporary view hold that resistance is simply afform of feedback and that and this feedback can be used very productively to manage the change process; one key to managing resistance is to plan for it and to be ready with a variety of strategies for using the resistance as feedback and helping employees negotiate the transition.
Approaches/Models to Managing Organizational change
For most people, change is not easy; even when we know things could be better, we get a certain comfort from a familiar setting, familiar people and familiar ways of doing things; because of this, change is most likely to succeed when managers follow a well-thought-out path to implement it. The following models show which type of strategy can be utilized to increase the effectiveness of change strategies.
1) Lewin’s Change Model
2) Nadler’s Organizational Model
3) A Contingency Model of Analyzing Change
4) Levin’s change model: Kurt Lewin a social psychologist, noted for his work in organizational theory, developed a model of the change process that has stood the test of time and continues to influence the way organizations manage planned change. Lewin’s model is based on the idea of force field analysis.
Force Field Analysis
A useful technique for analyzing change situations is Kurt Lewin’s force-field analysis method; this technique describes and analyses the various forces that operate in social systems to keep the system either in balance or in state of change. If the two sets of forces are equal in strength, then the system is in equilibrium.
1) Nadler’s Organizational Model: David Nadler’s model provides guidance in identifying and managing the internal forces that drive or inhibit change.
2) A Contingency Model of Analyzing change: Kotter and Schlesinger have proposed a contingency framework for matching methods with situations of organizations.
Definition of Organizational Development (OD)
According to Wendell L; French and Cecil H; Bell, Jr; “organization development is a systematic process for applying behavioral science principles and practices in organizations to increase individual and organizational effectiveness”. According to Cummings and Worley, organization development is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving and organization’s effectiveness “In the words of Burke, “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies research and theory. American Society for training and development defined OD as, “An effort planned organization wide, managed from the top in order to increase organizational effectiveness and health, through planned intervention in the organization’s process using behavioral science knowledge”. From the above definitions, we can say that organization development is an organizational improvement strategy. The term “organization Development” (OD) may be defined as a technique from bringing change in the entire organization. It is based on knowledge from behavioral science disciplines such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, systems theory, organizational behavior, organization theory and management. The two major goals of OD programs are:
1) To improve the functioning of individuals, teams, and total organization
2) To teach organization members how to continuously improve their own functioning.
Goals of Organization development
Edwin B.Flippo has given the following seen specific goals of OD. They are:
- Decision making on the basis of competence rather than authority.
- Creatively resolving conflicts through confrontation designed to replace win-lose situations with win-win types.
- Reducing dysfunctional competition and maximizing collaboration.
- Increasing commitment and a sense of “ownership” of organization objectives throughout the work force
- Increasing the degree of interpersonal trust and support.
- Creating a climate in which human growth, development and renewal are a natural part of the enterprise’s daily operation
- Development a communication system characterized by mutual openness and candor in solving organizational problems.
Purpose of Organizational Development
The main purpose of OD according to Burton is “to bring about a system of organizational renewal that can effectively cope with environmental changes. In doing so, OD strives to maximize organizational effectiveness as well as individual work satisfaction”. Organizational development is the most comprehensive strategy for intervention. It involves all the activities and levels of management in ongoing problems that respond to external and internal sources.
Types of OD activities: the different types of OD activities may be divided into the following classification:
(a) For the Individual
(b) OD for two or Three People
(c) OD for Teams or Groups
(d) OD for Inter-group Relations
(e) OD for the Total Organization
OD Interventions or Techniques
OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage in a task or a sequence of tasks with the goals of organizational improvement and individual development. The organizational development (OD) essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of OD
Since OD requires an ongoing, long0term effort to bring about lasting change in an organization’s technology, structure and people, a successful OD program takes a significant investment of money and time. Both are needed for managers to adequately diagnose the problem, select the strategy, and evaluate the effectiveness of the program.
Managers can measure the effectiveness by comparing the results of the program to the goals before it was implemented. OD is an expression of managers’ efforts to stay flexible. Managers recognize that events inside and outside the organization can happen quite suddenly and can create pressure for change. OD provides the personnel and mechanism to deal with change; control its evolution; and direct its impact on organizational structure, technology, and people.
The Future and Organizational Development
The environment in which organizations operate is increasingly turbulent in an era of global, national and regional commercial competitiveness. Yesterday’s strategies are not likely to work in tomorrow’s workplaces. Top-down autocratically directed, rigidly hierarchical, fear-generating organizations are giving way to something new. Increasingly, organizations will flatter, with smaller groups and units. OD will be a major player in assisting organizations to shift to — and sustain — this new paradigm which proclaims that the most innovative and successful organizations will be those that derive their strength and vitality from adaptable, committed team players. Thus, the OD process should include:
– Careful tuning into the perceptions and feelings of people.
– Creating safe conditions for surfacing perceptions and feeling.
– Involving people in diagnosing the strengths and weaknesses of their organizations and making action plans for improvement.
– Using qualified third parties as consultants.
– Redesigning work so that it is more meaningful and motivating.
– Focusing on teamwork.
Change is inevitable in a progressive culture and meeting this challenge of change is the primary responsibility of management. Adaptability to change is a necessary quality of good management. Organizational change refers to a modification or transformation of the organization structure, process or good. There are external forces for change due to technological, globalization; workforce diversity and changes due to internal forces are work climate, changes in managerial personnel. There is Lewin change model. Lewin’s change model, Nadler’s Organizational model, contingency model of analyzing change.
Organizational development is a systematic process for applying behavioral science principles and practices in organizations to increase individual and organizational effectiveness. Some of the OD intervention are Sensitivity Training, Survey Feedback and process consultation a Team Building. Innovations is the process of making improvements by introducing something new. In the organizational context, innovation may be linked to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency, quality and productivity. Organizational learning involves individual learning, those who make the shift from traditional organization thinking to learning organizations develop the ability to think critically and creatively. Organizational effectiveness: defined as the ability of an organization to fulfill its mission through sound management, strong governance and a persistent rededication toa achieving results.
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