In the given article the authors try to identify gender distinctions in Karakalpak language by the means of Karakalpak paremia and phraseology.
Key words: gender, gender linguisticsm, gender research, paremia, phraseology.
Gender research (GR), including linguistic genderology, is a new direction of humanitarian knowledge, which is in our country at the stage of formation. This fact causes us to start our work with a description of both the object and the subject of the GR, and the general philosophical context of their occurrence. It is known that the GR began to develop intensively, primarily in the Western humanities. Their emergence and development is not accidental, but is associated with a new look at the problem of cognition, the philosophy of science and the philosophy of society, with the intensive development of philosophical and psychological personology, sociology and ethnoanthropology.
The very concept of gender (gender) is known since the sixties, but it was widely applied only in the early eighties. In the scientific description, it was introduced in order to draw a line between the concept of sexus and the social and cultural implications implied in the male-female concepts: the division of roles, cultural traditions, the relationship of power in relation to the sex of people. The term gender is intended to exclude biological determinism, embodied in the concept of sexus and ascribes all the sociocultural differences associated with gender, universal natural factors.
The gender concept leads to the conclusion that femininity and masculinity are not only signs of specific biological organisms but also socially and culturally conditioned concepts that allow themselves to be viewed as a binary opposition, including not only the presence / absence of a certain attribute, but also the category of evaluation.
According to the opinion of V. fon Humboldt, the studying of language should be carried out taking into consideration the human aspect in language, as language is a living organism . A. V. Kirilina emphasizes, that even though gender is not linguistic category (with the exception of socio- and psycholinguistics), analyze of language categories presents the investigator the information about: what role gender plays in a culture, what behavioral standards for men and women fix in texts of various types, how the ideas change about gender norms, masculinity and femininity, what stylistic features can be referred to mainly female or male, how masculinity and femininity interprets in different languages and cultures, how gender belonging effects to learning a language, what fragments and thematic spheres of linguistic picture of world it is connected with” [2; 10–11] In confirmation of this Uzbek scientists think that language is inseparable from traditions, mode of life of the people who speak this language, and from the outside world [3; 10–12].
Paremiology is chosen as a subject of research not by chance — it is at the intersection of phraseology and folklore, which makes the study of proverbs and sayings very significant from the standpoint of the modern linguistic and cultural approach. The paremiological fund of the Karakalpak language is an important source of interpretation, since the majority of proverbs are «prescriptions, stereotypes of people's self-consciousness, which give a wide enough scope for choice for self-identification». Paremiology is indicative from the point of view of cultural stereotypes fixed in the language. The existence of different possibilities for self-identification is undeniable, however, an analysis of a large number of units allows one to nevertheless draw a conclusion about dominant tendencies and estimates.
When analyzed, it has been revealed that most of the phraseological units in Karakalpak language do not differ by gender. They are mainly composed of phraseological units, which do not represent an individual nomination.
Most of the set of paremia are made up of metaphors for human body, which can be used for all individuals, regardless of their sex: bas iyiw, ayag’ina jig’liw, awzina uriw
Some of the phraseological units belong to men only. Qarip quiylmag’an.
Women's units: Anasinin’ basina ko’pshik dastiq boliw
The expressive-pragmatic component describes a very broad range of women's voices: tilin’e ku’ydirgi shiqqir.
The phraseological units belonging to each of the two sexes:er jetiw, kewil beriw
Sometimes it is a question of women's negative image.
There is not a significant discrepancy when confronted with men.
1. Gross beauty of women:ay desem awzi bar, ku’n desem ko’zi bar, bir qasiq suwday jutip jiberetindey.
There are phraseological units representing the family function of women waqti –saati jetiw, ay-ku’ni jaqin
3. It is understood that the group of proverbs is used for women and can be compared with the character of men: qirq jigitke ten’.
It is clearly expressed that specific features such as referral counseling, procurement, intercourse, and the like are specific to women's speech in Karakalpak phraseology.
Praising: janimdi bereyin.
Cursing: tandiri shiqqir, jer jutsin
Fear: Wiy biy alla
Women may sometimes make men be obedient: Murninan jip o’tkizip aliw
The woman is described as something that can be abandoned: juwabin beriw, basin baylaw
A negative attitude towards the age of women: otirip qaliw, otizg’a kirip otin boliw.
Women's nomination: otin, ala qorjin, qari qiz, erkek geshir.
Negative nomination for men: qizlardin’ jen’gesi, qarip quyilmag’an.
The frazeological units with «Father» and «Mother» components were many: atan’ jaqsi, anan’ jaqsi dep.
Men's nomadic, fertile cultivars: malaqay, belbew, saqal.
Phraseological units representing the courage and pride of men: ata bala, er bala, haqiyqiy erkek.
In phraseology, the prevalence of negative outlook in favor of a positive is determined by the acceptance of realistic attitudes rather than with the gender factor. Negative and positive attributes are expressed in the language as the accepted standard.
During the analysis of women's characters, the following human characteristics were negatively evaluated:
1. Talkativeness: Elekke barg’an qatinnin’, eliw awiz ga’pi bar.
2. Slyness: Bir qatinnin’ hiylesi, qiriq eshekke ju’k bolar.
3. Sometimes a woman ignores the mind: Xayt dese iyt juwiradi, iytden aldin-qiz.
4. A woman as a destroyer of home, family: Jaman arba jol buzar, jaman qatin-u’y.
Proverbs describing the positive and neutral characteristics of women:
1. Cognition: Qatinnin’ ko’rki aqlinda.
2. Beautiness: Qizdin’ ko’rki shash.
3. Husband’s advisor: qatin-erdin’ waziyri.
4. As a housewife: qatini bar u’y-gu’l, qatinsiz u’y sho’l.
When we learnt the proverbs and sayings, it was noticed that in some cases, the concept of “woman” is connoted negatively. It is especially attributed to words “qatin” Though, the word “qatin” is a synonym to the word “hayal” as in English
5. “a wife, a woman”, it has its negative shade which is extensive with some words, combinations and phrases and intensified by its peculiar meaning in Karakalpak.
6.“Jaman attan jawdag’in’ jaqsi,
7.Jaman qatinnan boydag’in’ jaqsi”.
8.“El qidirg’an sinshi bolar,
9.Jaman qatin tin’shi bolar”.
10. However, some proverbs opposes “jaman qatin” (a bad wife) to “jaqsi qatin” (a good wife” stressing that atmosphere in the house, peaceful life in the family, relationship among relatives and members of family depends on a large extent on a wife, her behavior and wisdom.
Jaqsi qatin erin er qiladi,
Jaman qatin erin qara jer qiladi.
Jaqsi bolsa qatinin’,
Kelip turar jaqinin’,
Jaman bolsa qatinin’
Basin’nan keter aqilin’.
Jaman qatin alg’annin’ jawi u’yinde,
Jaqsi qatin alg’annin’ toyi u’yinde,
Eki qatin alg’annin’ dawi u’yinde,
O’miri o’te beredi sol ku’yinde.”
In Karakalpak language phraseology men's labor activity is limited to such fields as horticulture, farming, livestock, jewelry, hunting and fishing.
Women's social status does not seem to be much higher than men's. But it is a woman who has been a responsible person for many years, and has been abusive to doing serious things. Therefore, linguistic units that represent important occupations for women are not used.
Although indifference and brutality are inherent to men, weakness, weakness, and disobedience can be characteristic of men:
Erke ul jawg’a jaramas, erke qiz iske; erkeletse anasi-taltayadi balasi, tuwri tutsa anasi, jurtqa iye balasi.
Chatter is considered to be inherent in a woman and has become the cause of many jokes: elekke shiqqan qatinnin’-eliw awiz ga’pi bar.
The wisdom of the woman in the Karakalpak language, her faithfulness to her husband, and her confidence in her husband is not denied: aqilsiz qatin jamalin ko’z-ko’z etedi, aqilli qatin- aqlin.
Karakalpak men are characterized by such qualities as patriotism, honesty, kindness, courage, humility, generosity: er jigit wa’de bermeydi, onin’so’zi wa’de. Er jigit el ushin tuwiladi, el ushin o’ledi.
The women of Karakalpakstan possess such qualities as wisdom, goodness, purity, inexhaustibility, diligence, tolerance, hospitality and hardworking. These qualities are reflected in frazeologisms and paremments.
Although the conceptual layer describing the physiological characteristics of women and men has been studied in women'simaget in the Karakalpak article (Anan’di a’ken’e pardazsiz ko’rsetpe), but internal and natural beauty is essential: Suliwinan jiliwi jaqsi; qatinnin’ ko’rki aqilinda.
The purity and tenderness of the woman are also among the most important signs of her beauty: Oyin saz benen- qiz nazi menen.
The traditional dominant ideologies that govern the society are characterized by a high degree of vulnerability and a maladaptation of men. It does not always support this dignity. Despite the negative image of a woman over her positive attitudes, we have faced situations that could weaken androcentrism in the tongue: Ulin’ axmaq bolsa da, kelinin’ dana bolsin; qatin –moyin, erkek-bas.
The gender dimension of female and male masculinity has been critically examined in the semantic space of «kinship relationships». Parenting analysis shows that the role of mother in childbearing is more important than that of the father: anasina qarap qizin al.
The role of mother is more important than father's: atasiz jetim — zor jetim, anasiz jetim — xor jetim.
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