The article offers suggestions and recommendations for sustainable development and competitiveness of the industry in the context of modernization and diversification of the economy as one of the main goals of structural and economic reforms in the world economy and agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Keywords: Liberalization of the economy, property relations in agriculture, agricultural development, independent management.
В статье предложены рекомендации по устойчивому развитию и повышению конкурентоспособности отрасли в контексте модернизации и диверсификации экономики как одной из основных целей структурных и экономических реформ в мировой экономике и сельском хозяйстве Республики Узбекистан.
Ключевые слова: либерализация экономики, имущественные отношения в сельском хозяйстве, развитие сельского хозяйства, независимое управление.
Agriculture is not a simple branch of agriculture, in which the working people are valued in society as a major force that preserves and distributes certain moral and spiritual values. It is based on personal freedom, family and love for one's husband. Experience of world agriculture shows that in family farms the interest in innovations in production develops, the value of land and property, the attitude of family members to each other is strongly nurtured, moral traditions are preserved and passed down from generation to generation. Therefore, in world agriculture, family farms are distinguished by their economic stability and resilience and are highly valued.
The process of reforms in agriculture during the years of independence is determined by the priorities, directions of development of the sector, the implemented economic measures. In the context of economic liberalization, great attention is paid to the development of property relations in agriculture, high interest, the development of farms that have been tested in world agricultural practice and developed countries have proven their superiority as an effective form of management in this sector.
The main goal of the ongoing economic reforms is to find the real owner of the land, to improve the living standards of the rural population, to increase production, to improve product quality and to create the necessary conditions for a sharp reduction in imports of certain products.
In the early years of independence, the introduction of market mechanisms in agricultural production could not be achieved through the development of family contracting, solving all issues in public and state farms, including crop placement, land productivity, livestock productivity and the family contractor's financial interests. rather, as a result of a certain degree of dependence on the management experience of the farm manager, an effective form of management began to focus on the development of the farm.
One of the main goals of structural and economic reform of agriculture in the country is to provide the population with food products and raw materials for industrial enterprises on the basis of sustainable development and competitiveness of the economy in the context of modernization and diversification of the economy.
Therefore, the next stages of agricultural development are as follows:
— deepening market reforms and further strengthening the economy liberalization;
— The rapid development of the private sector, its country ensuring an increase in its share in the economy;
— work on the development of small business and farming deepening and scaling up;
— such as deepening reforms in the banking and financial systems it must be acknowledged that priorities have been identified.
In particular, the development of property relations, increasing material interests, the development of farms operating on the principles of guarantees of free and independent operation have been identified as priorities, and great attention is paid to improving their legal framework in line with market economy requirements. The peculiarities and advantages of farm development, in our opinion, are reflected in the following areas:
— First, it leads to the formation of the principles of private ownership in the village and the expansion of the ranks of real middle owners;
— secondly, the means of production, ie the use of property increase efficiency and material interest of farm members issues are resolved in an interdependent manner;
— Third, independent of the products grown and sources of income mechanisms of their use, free distribution and disposal is formed;
In our opinion, this approach is not only practical but also scientifically sound. This is because the principle of gradual deepening of economic reforms in agriculture has been recognized, and practice proves its effectiveness. After all, each stage has its own characteristics and serves as a basis for improving the legal and regulatory acts in accordance with the next stage.
In this regard, we believe that it is important to scientifically and practically analyze the stages of formation and development of farms and their characteristics and draw appropriate conclusions on this basis.
Based on the results of our research and study of the organization and development of farms in the country, in our opinion, in order to increase their share in the economy in the next stages, it is necessary to consistently improve the process of technical and technological modernization and land optimization. Given that the main goals of economic reforms are to find the real owner of public land, to steadily increase the living standards of the rural population, to increase production and improve quality, as well as to reduce dependence on imports of certain types of products. the creation of economic and technical conditions requires addressing as the main tasks on the agenda.
At the same time, the analysis shows that the economic relations of production between farms and other economic entities related to their activities are not sufficiently developed. Therefore, in this complex of relations, it is expedient to pay special attention to the development of the system of protection of material interests and rights of farms.
In order to ensure its effective operation and development, it is important to address some of the existing shortcomings in the following areas.
— First, farms with the status of a legal entity although they have an equal right to independently conclude and execute contracts with procurement, supply and service organizations, but the analysis shows that these contracts do not adequately protect the rights of the farmer, especially in setting prices for their products.
— Second, the farmer is independent of the charter capital of his farm although it has the authority to form and manage it, but the opportunities for its continuous expansion are limited due to insufficient sources of funding.
— Third, despite the fact that the work process is based on the free choice of all partners and the independent establishment of relations with them, in most cases, due to low solvency, farms are not able to fully fulfill their obligations. In particular, this is observed in the use of more hired labor, ie there is reason to conclude that the amount of wages paid to them does not fully meet the requirements of current social protection.
— Fourth, efficient and economical means of production use, production indicators and their own farm activities. The main goal of farms and to increase efficiency
Despite the benefits, the high cost of material and technical resources and services should be recognized as one of the serious obstacles to the steady growth of their net profit. Therefore, there is still a need to improve the system of state support for farms in this area.
— Fifth, we believe that in the contractual relations of farms with other enterprises and organizations, the main attention should be paid to the protection of their material and financial interests.
— Sixth, in the future to develop and implement legal and regulatory documents in line with the stage of building and improving the system of cooperation and corporate governance of farms directly related to their technological production processes; It is advisable to carry out the stage.
Therefore, in order to effectively manage the farms and develop their prospects, it is important to review and improve the set of relations with the subjects of the contract and economic relations, labor relations, land relations, service and procurement system as its organizational and economic bases. -practical significance.
- Speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Republican video conference dedicated to the most promising sector of agriculture in ensuring employment and income, maintaining economic stability in the country in the current global crisis and pandemic. //, 14.04.2020
- Farmonov T.Kh. Prospects for the development of farms — T.: «Yangi asr avlodi», 2004. -47 p.
- http://lex.uz/ National database of legislation.18.07.978/2067
- http://lex.uz/ National database of legislation.06/18/5587/2245