History of formation of folklore and ethnography as a scientific | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №15 (357) апрель 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 13.04.2021

Статья просмотрена: 2 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Файзиева, К. А. History of formation of folklore and ethnography as a scientific / К. А. Файзиева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 15 (357). — С. 387-389. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/357/79912/ (дата обращения: 17.05.2021).

Independence has given the people the opportunity to develop their oral poetic creativity, to record, publish and analyze the spiritual and cultural heritage created by the people in the same class, non-partisan, realistic way.

Key words : folklore, universal values, poetic work, folk oral creation.

Независимость дала людям возможность развивать свое устное поэтическое творчество, записывать, публиковать и анализировать духовное и культурное наследие, созданное людьми реалистично.

Ключевые слова : фольклор, общечеловеческие ценности, поэтическое произведение, народное устное творчество.

President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I. A. Karimov in his booklet «Attention to literature — attention to spirituality, attention to the future» spoke about the present and future of Uzbek literature, including the experience of translating, publishing and studying the best examples of world literature, foreign writers. emphasizes the need to pay more attention to the issue of further development of relations with «However, as we strive to raise our spirituality and develop our youth in the spirit of national and universal values, we must never be wrapped up in our own shell», the President wrote in his pamphlet [1].

In the short period since independence, constant attention has been paid to the in-depth study and analysis of all historical, cultural, literary, artistic monuments and folklore created by our ancestors, the formation and development of Uzbek and Oriental thinking, pride, serving universal and national ideas. As the head of our state I. A. Karimov said, due to independence, “it has become possible in practice to raise the republic in accordance with its national interests, taking into account the age-old way of life, traditions, customs, skills and unique natural resources. From the first days of independence, the head of our state has stressed the need to pay attention to the rich folklore, kindness and love of the people, formed over many centuries, in order to restore the national values of the people, examples of folklore, beautiful traditions. Independence has given the people the opportunity to develop their oral poetic creativity, to record, publish and analyze the spiritual and cultural heritage created by the people in the same class, non-partisan, realistic way [2].

The people's oral creativity of our President, the values of the people's national wisdom were called a unique Code of Ethics. “Our ancient ancestors developed a whole set of moral requirements for a perfect man, in modern language, the Eastern Code of Ethics. There must be an uncompromising rebellion against the filthy, the filthy, the unjust in the heart of man. ”He was referring to the issue of spiritual education, which is very important for the current generation. Therefore, the system of higher education in Uzbekistan is focused on the issues of spiritual education in terms of today's principles, and the values of folklore, which are the source of folk wisdom in the education of the perfect man, are the most important spiritual wealth. Folklore is the oldest and most ancient branch of the art of word art culture. Although there are different opinions in folklore about the meaning of the term «folk art» and the meaning of this concept, the specific nature and leading features of folk art are not fully revealed. The increase of human experience in the process of labor, the development of consciousness, the desire to express ideas about nature and society through figurative words, led to the emergence of the form of oral creation.

Folk oral poetic creativity — the art of oral expression — is referred to as «folklore» or «folkloristics». Folklore has been considered part of ethnography, anthropology, musicology, and even sociology at different times and in different countries. The term «folklore» was first used in 1846 by nineteenth-century explorer William Thoms. «Folk» means «people», «lor» means «knowledge», «wisdom», «wisdom», ie «knowledge of the people», «wisdom of the people», «wisdom of the people». The term «folklore» became an international term and began to be used in various countries. In England and the United States, all forms of folk art — poetic creation, music, dance, play, theater, fine and applied arts, as well as myths, beliefs, and customs — are referred to by this term. We can say that folklore is a syncretic art because the elements of music, dance, theatrical art are combined in folklore works. At the same time, folklore works differ from other types of art in their peculiarities. In folklore, the unity of word, melody and performance is always preserved. That is why the science that studies and examines folk art is called folklore. The foundations of folklore go back to the aesthetic thinking of the ancient world. Written and oral relics of legends and myths, various customs and rituals of tourists and historians of the ancient world are important for folklore. The first experiments in the recording of folklore works date back to the 11th century. Folklore works reflect the life of a working people. It embodies the socio-historical, political, philosophical and artistic-aesthetic views of the people about the world. These things show the deep popularism of the content and idea of folklore works. The basis of populism in folklore is its progressive essence. Historical and social events in the works of folklore in terms of the relations of the people. Folklore has its own characteristics: oral, folk, traditional, collective performance, variability, variability [3].

It is worth noting that the American poet Washington Irving is one of the founders who developed American romanticism. Later, in the preface to the book «Bracebridge Hall», he wrote: «My mind, born and nurtured in the New World and still brought up on the literature of the Old, from childhood was bound by a historical and poetic connection with certain places, customs and customs of Europe». This is how the main feature of all Irving's work is formed — a combination of elements of ancient European and young national culture. America has just begun. Pushkin published his retelling of the story of a boy kidnapped by the Indians. In the preface, he outlined his view of America.

Something in the introduction can be explained by the need to speak for censorship, but the whole tone shows that Pushkin sees an internal contradiction in America. It was in this early America that Washington Irving (1783–1859) was born — the first American writer whose name became known to the entire reading world. He was describing the prairies, and the Russian translator, in the same year to which Pushkin's article about John Tenner, published «A Trip to the Meadow Steppes», and, comparing Irving to Marlinsky, was amazed at the American's realism. Indeed, Irving's descriptions are excellent. Irving in many of his things has a talent not only as a writer, but also as a scientist. And at the same time, he is an ironic and disappointed person. The contradiction that lies in bourgeois democracy was not yet noticeable to the average American, but it was already noticeable to Alexander Pushkin, and it was this that created the irony of Irving. Irving felt like an eccentric in his own country. The natural environment of the first two decades of life brought up excellent character traits in Irving: observation, a deep interest in people, especially the old or unknown, living in deep forests, somewhere along the Hudson or in Sleepy Hollows, attachment to nature, the feeling of the sea as an irrevocable road to human happiness, a desire for adventure. Readers of the «History of New York», possessing this, so far «unhealed», immortal quality of pioneers, appreciated the first book of Washington Irving, or, more precisely, understood its hidden truth, but the author himself did not evaluate himself — and could not appreciate this is why: because true organic talent in any field of work or creativity is imperceptible. A person who has this property, the property of talent, naturally and involuntarily does not feel it. In any case, such a person does not need to strain, force his abilities in order to force them to act [4].

Leaving in the «Book of Sketches» away from the great, but already well-known objects — the Colosseum and the Gulf of Naples, Irving discovered other, full of deep meaning, but unknown objects: landscapes, unknown ruins, private, transient, but sharply specific states of the human soul, which will then serve as one of the nourishing sources for the European psychological novel.


  1. Autleva F. A. Folklore and literary interrelations in W. Irving's prose as an element of its literary and esthetic concept, 2014. p. 129–134.
  2. Kenneth Brodey, Fabio Malgaretti. Focus on English and American literature -Review of the English and American literature. M.: Ayris-press, 2003. 400 p.
  3. URL: http:// royall ib.com/book/irving_vashington/genih_prizrak.html
  4. [Electronic resource]. URL: http://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): URL.

Ключевые слова

folklore, universal values, poetic work, folk oral creation
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