Smart technologies allow you to improve the quality of service and reduce costs. Many innovations push consumers to change their behavioral model. Special financing mechanisms, a reasonable loan policy, and the involvement of private resources in the format of public-private partnerships will help the authorities to introduce smart technologies into the urban space.
Keywords: special financing mechanisms, a reasonable loan policy, a new model of development of cities, energy.
Today, a new model of development of cities is being dictated, based on human capital, innovation and high technologies. Cities are gradually becoming intelligent systems. Digital transformation affects all the main areas of the city's functioning: health, education, energy, transport, resource management and urban space. It is necessary to form a new quality of cities in the context of slowing economic growth and budget deficits. Therefore, the issues of financing smart city technologies come to the fore. Significant budget funds are invested in the development of smart technologies. For example, more than 100 billion rubles from the federal budget have been invested in the electric power industry since 2007. Part of this investment is spent on the implementation of intelligent systems.
The main priorities in the use of smart technologies in the electric power industry are to improve public services, reduce costs, save energy and increase energy efficiency, integrate and develop renewable energy sources in the urban environment. Among the technologies used for the intellectualization of energy supply, it is possible to distinguish smart power supply networks (smart grid). The purpose of this technology is to make the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity intelligent. Smart networks are saturated with modern diagnostic tools, electronic control systems, algorithms, and technical devices (for example, short-circuit current limiters for superconducting lines). The introduction of this technology in the city reduces losses in the transmission of electricity from the generator to the consumer, increases the reliability of energy supply, provides additional opportunities for optimal redistribution of energy flows and reducing peak loads. The introduction of smart electricity meters with remote reading will improve the quality of service and reduce commercial losses for grid companies. Today, legislative initiatives are already being prepared to encourage the installation of such metering devices .
In the future, the technologies of individual automatic weather control will become popular. Thermal energy savings during their implementation is 20–30 percent. As a result, the consumer's behavioral model is changing in households. He has an additional motivation to save electricity and develop a smart home. It is impossible to imagine a smart city without widespread use of renewable energy sources: sunlight, water flows, wind.
The quality of the heating service is improved: overflows in the warm season and underflows in the periods of maximum cold weather disappear. Of interest is the disaggregation of electricity consumption. This smart technology is currently being implemented in Moscow as part of pilot projects. It tracks how much energy each device consumes as part of the smart home components. Meeting the demand for electricity through solar thermal and power plants, wind generators is safe for the environment. These sources are inexhaustible and available to the public.
Smart city lighting provides light on the streets of the city in the right quality, quantity, at the right time and for a minimum of investment. Therefore, smart cities choose eco-friendly and highly efficient light sources. The potential for energy savings when replacing incandescent lamps with energy-saving ones is up to 90 percent. Additional savings are achieved through the introduction of automation (motion sensors) and timely switching off and on of lighting, reducing the load. The use of LEDs in urban lighting saves energy by up to 60 percent. The main problem when implementing an LED lighting system is its high initial cost.
A smart transport system is a set of systems that helps to operate the transport network more efficiently, using information, communication and management technologies embedded in the vehicle or road infrastructure. The basis of intelligent transport systems is the information that needs to be collected, processed, integrated and distributed. The ITS complex is capable of performing the functions of dispatching situational and operational coordination of the interactions of all road users, special services and departments.
A detailed study of the usage data shows that in the group of the five most popular solutions, the median utilization rate reaches 50 % or higher. This group is represented by popular smart digital solutions that meet the behavioral stereotypes and needs that are characteristic of the majority of the adult population. For example, the vast majority of adults regularly use the services of traditional municipal services, such as public transport, taxis, and public services. Therefore, smart city solutions that simplify the process and improve the user experience, but do not require significant changes in the usual behaviors, are becoming as popular as the main municipal services.
Other solutions show lower usage rates. Nine solutions have a median utilization rate of 20–40 %, and seven solutions have been used at least once by less than 20 % of adult citizens. This situation can be explained by a set of factors that limit the spread of smart solutions in most cities To improve the energy efficiency of cities, it is important to implement intelligent transport systems. They, combined with optimal road loading, reduce energy consumption by 5–15 percent .
One of the leaders is Moscow, where the corresponding program has already been adopted. It provides for the transition to intelligent traffic light management, giving priority to public transport, and dynamic traffic speed control, routing to prevent traffic jams. Today, every traffic light in Moscow is equipped with an optical channel, which allows you to process huge amounts of data. Means for preventing traffic violations have also been introduced in the capital. Sensors detect intersections of solid lines and stop lines, and speeding. According to the developers ' forecasts, in 5–10 years, drivers will learn how to behave correctly on the roads.
A modern smart city is not just a municipality with a well-developed technological infrastructure. This is a place where a person's life takes on a new quality thanks to smart solutions. Thanks to the use of technology and the digitalization of traditional services, people use their resources and time more efficiently and productively-becoming real residents of a smart city.
The city administration can not only hold traditional meetings and give interviews to journalists—social networks can become an additional channel of communication. Such platforms allow you to directly address groups of the population that are not sufficiently covered by other channels, including young people, as well as receive feedback in the form of likes, comments and reposts. First, the city's social media page helps the city's leadership explain its policies and measures to residents, and the understanding achieved in this way contributes to the growth of popularity. Secondly, on these pages you can receive feedback from the residents of the city in the form of comments. And third, these pages help residents learn more about their city. Information about leisure options, as well as about various city activities, can be a good help for citizens and allow them to get more satisfaction from life in general.
Most of the cities considered in our study and their mayors have their own official pages in social networks-most often on Twitter, then on Facebook and Instagram. Against this background, Sao Paulo stands out, where Facebook has become the main social network. We analyzed the style and content of messages on popular pages of mayors and cities, which can serve as an example for those who want to make social networks an effective communication channel for city authorities. Successful mayors 'social media pages cover a wide variety of topics: strategic objectives and elections, social issues, city events and holidays, economy, security, national and world news, culture, emergencies, citizens' rights and minority issues, as well as urban development projects. Successful city pages are characterized by a higher concentration of content dedicated to city events and holidays (34 %) and lifestyle (30 %).
If we talk about the style of messages, the most popular pages of mayors are written more in the style of personal communication than in the official one. More than half of the posts on these pages are written in an informal tone, contain personal appeals to residents and emotional judgments. The content and style of communication on the popular pages of cities in social networks are of the same informal nature—more than half of the posts also contain appeals to residents, calls to action,links to sites or events, and informal photos.
With the help of special electronic platforms, you can rent out your housing (whole or separate rooms) to other people for a short period of time. This scheme of housing rental has a number of advantages. First, rental housing can be a source of additional income. By renting out vacant rooms or apartments, residents increase the overall utilization rate of the city's housing stock. Also, the rental of housing by its owners is a source of income for local residents authorities and communities, as more affordable prices for accommodation compared to hotels help attract tourists. In addition, urban residents, tourists and local communities are more actively involved in cross-cultural communication through rental housing. And yet the rental of housing is associated with a number of negative consequences that can negate all the benefits in the absence of proper control. In some cities, a significant portion of apartments that are rented out for a short period of time are owned or managed by professional landlords who own several apartments. For example, in 2014, more than a third of ads in New York were placed by such individuals.
In fact, such landlords open illegal hotels that do not meet the requirements of licensing, taxation and security (in general, more stringent requirements apply to hotels than to private apartments). In addition, such activities deprive ordinary citizens of the opportunity to receive additional income.
The introduction of new technologies in the urban space requires regulatory and methodological support. The concept of «smart city», the components of its content, architecture, the rules on payment for smart technologies-all this should be spelled out in the legislation. Today, the regional authorities are not able to allocate budget funds for smart city projects. Therefore, the mechanisms of state support for at least pilot projects in cities need to be fixed at the legislative level.
The authorities should see smart technologies as a necessary factor for the development of cities in the first place. Therefore, we need to implement the entire line of smart city tools wherever possible. There are expensive technologies that not all cities can afford. But there are also solutions that have already become available to many cities. The investment of budget funds should be accompanied by the introduction of modern standards that provide for the introduction of smart technologies. This will create additional demand and speed up the processes associated with commercialization and reduce implementation costs. Funding will become more realistic if funds are allocated within the framework of federal, regional and municipal target programs. Local authorities can promote the introduction of smart technologies in the urban environment. Namely:
– explain to entrepreneurs how they can invest in the infrastructure of smart cities, on the official websites of the city and at personal meetings;
– involve manufacturers of modern smart equipment in projects to introduce smart technologies in the urban environment;
– provide consulting and methodological support for smart city projects, invest budget funds in such projects;
– explain to consumers in an accessible form how you can pay less using more expensive, but smart solutions .
Finally, the willingness of people to use the new technology is of great importance. Solutions that allow the application of digital technologies to existing widespread processes are more easily gaining popularity than those that form new behavioral stereotypes. For example, navigation apps do not change the general principle of using a car. We get in the car and drive it as before, but on the way we navigate using the navigator, not using our own memory or a paper map. We still use the metro and commuter trains, but instead of a paper timetable or information board, we use an information or integrated transport application.
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