Basin management reflecting the effectiveness of IWRM | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Экология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №2 (344) январь 2021 г.

Дата публикации: 10.01.2021

Статья просмотрена: 7 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Аманов, М. М. Basin management reflecting the effectiveness of IWRM / М. М. Аманов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2021. — № 2 (344). — С. 237-242. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/344/77335/ (дата обращения: 25.02.2021).


  1. Introduction

Today, there are 2 important problems facing humanity: the lack and depletion of freshwater resources. Moreover, the need to create original and communicative management institutions is the reason for predicting the adverse effects of climate change on water resources. Creating such systems is one of the main solutions for a sustainable future. Experts say that to improve efficiency in the field of natural resource management, not only to be limited to professional knowledge, but also to use Amateur knowledge. Moreover, one of the main knowledges in the field of natural resources management is technical knowledge.

Only through the participation of all stakeholders are the most optimal model in the decision-making process in IWRM. Stakeholders immediately begin to respond to changes as soon as it appears, regardless of the profession or status of the decision-making person or organization. As a basis in decision-making in the field of natural resources, use networks and social knowledge, in addition, this knowledge is elegant and honest in the management of adaptive mechanism. To scale up and effectively use knowledge for natural resource management, there is a need to create decentralized councils. This will definitely help in the distribution of power without burdening each other. [2]

In the direction of water resources management, it is necessary to have not only quantitative space, but also temporal and qualitative dimensions. This will definitely help to avoid conflicts, if we take into account all the factors in the distribution of water. Moreover, it will allow to resolve the existing problems between the agricultural and environmental aspects. [3]

Basic coordination mechanisms involve the use of the same mechanisms for different agencies. It is not always integration, as consolidation immediately leads to interaction with coordination. As a result, by implementing the integration itself, it is possible to ensure more effective management of water resources. The duties and rights that will be shared will always take place. There are many examples of this, when the connection was made at the expense of institutions, and there was no significant improvement in the quality of the work. The opposite is also true when the effectiveness of the coordination mechanisms was able to resolve the situation even when additional organizations needed to be involved. It is also true that an ordinary act that transfers basic functionality within the work of one organization does not need to eliminate the situation of non-compliance of interests. Also, the priority result is the result in the organization itself if there is a probability of loss of trust. [11]

Thus, in the first section, we will consider the IWRM process and its expression in basin management. Also, the key principles and used aspects in the field of river basin management. In the second section, after this introduction, we will consider approaches to river basin management. Moreover, we will find out what the basin councils are like and what the basin organizations give positive results in the area of river basin management. In the third section, I will explain the need to create basin councils. In addition, we will consider the usefulness of creating basin councils not only by the state body, but also for ordinary water users. The fourth section discusses the status and goals of basin councils. This section also outlines the mandates and responsibilities of basin councils in the management and functioning of their activities. The last but no less important section discusses the important functions and mechanisms of implementation in the water resources management sector. Moreover, we will learn about the impact of knowledge and decentralization in water resources management. In conclusion, I will summarize the principle of the IWRM approach and summarize the effectiveness of basin councils.

1.1. The importance of research is that it will help me achieve my master's thesis goal.

1.2. Purpose of the study: reflecting effectiveness of IWRM in basin management.

1.3. The research objectives are: define reflecting principles of basin management in IWRM, find out the purpose of the basin management, learn the importance of creating a basin council, definition of the function of the basin council, define mechanisms of basin council.

1.4. Research methods: data collection, review of literature/web sources/

2. Literature review

2.1 IWRM and the principle of reflecting basin management

In recent years, Integrated water resources management (IWRM) has become the main model of water management in many countries. This principle is mainly understood for water management, which is aimed at the river basin. In addition, river basin management is aimed at all involved parties, from simple water users to farmers, from state organizations to non-governmental organizations. However, it is not an easy task to encourage stakeholder participation. Most of the countries that manage water resources correspond to multi-level jurisdictions in their work. In turn, they do not always meet the requirements for established hydrological limits. As a result of this, it should be concluded that the RBM identifies the need for reform for the future to change institutions and implementation in relation to river basin areas. You should also pay attention to the fact that due to decentralization, decision-making based on significant decisions, the following plays an important role in this. The reason is that it is possible to adapt to a specific area with the ability to use local knowledge, institutions for future participation of all stakeholders. The implementation of the restoration of the management of such resources and the institutionalization of the RBM are political aspects. The reason is the exact replacement of decision-making powers that exist and include socio-economic and political factors. [1]

However, in recent years, many changes and improvements have been made in the IWRM concept, which provides for many mechanisms in the field of water resources management. Such as creating river basin councils that are managed by stakeholders. Moreover, such institutions are an integration focused on sustainable management and reflect as the governing jurisdiction on the river basin. [2]

If we consider the policy and content, the use of General water resources management, as well as others that are related to them, then the new management opportunities, including for river basins, can be well analyzed with regard to re-qualification. With regard to the processes cited as examples, it should be borne in mind that there are institutional changes. Organizations also arise or change to comply with IWRM and RBM rules. This refers to the need to expand or reduce the number of responsibilities, tasks related to various areas of management, as well as newly created organizations. The process of creating organizations related to the river basin is most likely imperceptible, since in this case it is necessary to make the transition from political jurisdictions to technical units that perform management. [1]

Strong institutions are required to address multiple issues related to water resources and other environmental issues. Governing institutions often convene citizen Advisory groups to help achieve this goal, and providing these groups with access to up-to-date scientific information is seen as crucial to ensuring the value of their input and recommendations. In practice, however, balancing scientific expertise and the interests of stakeholders is a difficult task, and it is unclear whether commercial groups will deal with the available technical information. [5]

The main concepts and principles of IWRM (such as economic efficiency, social justice and environmental sustainability) are widely known and accepted. These are key coordination mechanisms. Among them, the principles of institutional design are of paramount importance, since poor institutional design will lead to institutional inefficiency. [3]

2.2 Basin management

One of the dominant and sustainable water management models is the river basin management approach. However, its introduction leads to a complete restructuring and regrouping of water sector institutions along hydrological borders. Moreover, the creation of such a new institution of management is political character and is described as a policy of scale. [1]

River basin organizations were created in response to two major challenges: integrated water resources management (coordinating water supply and demand while preserving water quality and ecosystem) and decentralized water management. It should be noted that when working with river basins, IWRM is used in most cases without restrictions (worldwide). In practice, as well as on the basis of calculations, the effectiveness of such a scale can be considered doubtful. The basic arguments relate to the fact that the economy and society are not within the limits of hydrological limits. As a result, a complex system of duplicating different limits relative to the decisions made is provoked. [1]

Making the river basin the basic unit in the system’s organizational structure was largely based on the French system. Similar to that system, the concession and control of regulatory instruments such as water permits, controlling pollution sources, and issuing environmental permits remain under the responsibilities of public water management agencies. [8]

It is widely believed that integrated water resource management at the river basin level, which gives due attention to water demand management as well as increased supply, the integrity of the hydrological system (surface water interactions, the relationship between watershed land use, runoff and water quality), and the significant role of the community in management decisions, is the most cost-effective, socially viable and environmentally sound strategy for water management when freshwater resources are scarce, and there are several uses of water competing with each other. [3]

The basin Council is an Advisory body established within the respective basin. Moreover, basin councils provide the necessary institutional framework for coordinating the efforts of water, land and environmental management bodies. Also, they consider current issues in the field of use and protection of water resources, water supply and sanitation. They make suggestions and recommendations for the participants of the Basin agreement, ensuring the quality of drinking water, various categories of water users, and public organizations dealing with the quality of water bodies. [6]

Incomplete political decentralization, as well as little control by the state, and legal aspects have made the issue of environmental control difficult. Even if water resources management takes the form of decentralized management, it will not be easy to institutionalize RBM. Also, the disadvantages of decentralization provoke a negative attitude to river basin management. We can say that through decentralization, we can make an effective RBM, because with it there is greater autonomy, greater opportunities for participants at the subnational level. [1]

Thus, basin councils represent a public form of organization that expresses the agreed opinion of the majority of participants, on the basis of which mandatory proposals are made for decision-making by basin water management departments. [10]

2.3 Importance of creating basin councils

The creation of basin councils in modern international practice is considered as an important component of an integrated approach to water resources management, which is considered as an effective means of ensuring fair, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable water resources management and provision of water services. This body provides the necessary institutional framework for coordinating the efforts of water resources management, land resources, environmental protection, drinking water quality, various categories of water users, public organizations dealing with water quality issues, etc. However, as already mentioned the actual and legal status of basin councils in the framework of foreign practice differs quite significantly from country to country. [6]

The establishment of basin councils provides benefits for the competent state authorities, water users and the public. For public authorities involved in water resources management, they provide these opportunities: providing a permanent organizational framework for integrated water resources management; establishing direct contacts with water users; improving the efficiency of identifying water management problems in the basin and making more appropriate decisions to address them; establishing more trusting relationships with water users; additional opportunities for resolving disputes on water issues; improvement of water use. [6]

There is no doubt that the creation of basin councils brings no less benefits to water users, which include, among other things: direct informing of management bodies about their interests and needs; participation in the process of making management decisions on water at the basin level, including the possibility of making alternative proposals; improving access to information on the state of water bodies and measures taken to protect and improve them; simplify the process of resolving disputes; additional opportunities for resolving disputes on water issues; implementation of public control in the water sphere. [7]

The integrated water resources management (IWRM) paradigm preached the river basin as a technical unit of analysis, the river Basin Council as the first institutional reform for proper water management and river basin councils as a technical solution to much-needed water reforms. [4]

In principle, the advantages of using technical knowledge in participation boards and Advisory boards are twofold. From a material point of view, knowledge can improve and facilitate decision-making by supporting more informed decisions. For example, in river basin organizations, reservoir models can inform stakeholders about water availability, recharge and discharge, potential water shortages, and the impact of climate-related events. [2]

Thus, basin councils established by state bodies are not long-lived, while councils created on the initiative or with the participation of public organizations work for a longer time. This can be explained by a clearer public understanding of the need to create basin councils, a greater interest in their work and a more active civil position than that of representatives of state bodies. However, the participation of state persons' in the work of councils is a necessary condition for their activities, since only they, according to the legislation, have the right of legislative initiative in the creation of basin councils. Besides that, they are responsible for making important strategic and operational decisions in the field of protection and use of water and other natural resources of watersheds. Therefore, the equal participation of representatives of government structures and the regular water users in the work of basin councils is a guarantee of their effective activity. [9]

2.4 The functions of basin councils

Basin organizations operate in accordance with their individual mandates, usually defined at the highest level by the Central government, to meet the challenges and implement government policies. The mandate largely depends on the reasons why basin initiatives were initiated and reflects the important issues being addressed in the basin. It is very important to clearly define the boundaries of the power (according to the law for official organizations), the reporting hierarchy, and explain who sets the rules for decision-making and participation of local people.

In planning, there are several basin councils that are within the competence of specialized structures in relation to the water Fund. According to theoretical assumptions, any issues in this area can be considered. At the same time, there are issues in practice that are within their competence, they are approved by certain documents that determine the status of pools. This also applies to the Regulations and other internal documents of the basin Council. We should not forget about the agreements concluded on the issue of basins — the subject with which the thematic scope of the specific structure described will be formed. The reason is that most of the basin councils are considered necessary for the formation of the direction of work of this body. Basin organizations provide for the need to ensure the implementation of relevant agreements. It should also be noted that the councils are not additional organizations in the water management sphere, despite this, they are managed by the basin water association. [7]

In addition to the listed goals for the basin council, they can be determined by the use of consumers, the development of a common action program for the protection of people and household facilities from the harmful effects of polluted water. This is also required in order to ensure the safe state of the GTS. Planning and implementation of an effective mechanism from an economic point of view, formation of regulatory documents on the use of the water management complex at the basin, regional and local levels. [9]

The responsibilities and rights of basin councils are the main and important parameter in the activities of its extension of work at the river basin level, as they affect relations. Not limited to this, basin councils prepare and implement plans for basin management, in addition, they resolve disputes and develop a method for implementing water supply permits. As already mentioned, all interested persons can participate in the events and offer their ideas for improving the management. [2]

An accurate understanding of the reasons that affect the use of technical facilities in relation to water resources is considered important. The reason is to increase the relevance of management decision-making, informing about the sources of knowledge about the existing needs. This is especially important recently because of the current situation, in which there are many factors that negatively affect the world's water resources. The use of technical structures, including weather forecasts, climate models, models of the direction of water flows, assessments of the impact on the surrounding world, etc., within such organizations. [2]

The organization of all stakeholders is carried out through river basin committees, as well as through consortia. The first of these are legal organizations for IWRM. They can develop and approve river management plans, set goals for ensuring water quality, create and implement edicts for issuing permits and accepting payment for water, including the directions in which water can be used. This also applies to the consideration of cases in arbitration in case of conflict situations. Councils do not have legally justified rights, but they have the same responsibilities as committees. However, they do not have the full scope of rights in relation to their actions. Councils and committees in most cases have representation, there is a plenary session and a Secretariat. Several councils also have technical chambers and working groups. Maybe both of them. They are created and organized to support decisions taken at the plenary session. A smaller number of councils have a better developed structure. It includes Executive organizations that are used to implement decisions made in relation to the river basin. [2]

Another, no less important issue in the scale of activities is financing, as it reveals the ability of basin councils to take measures to solve various problems in the river basin. Since basin councils face important tasks, the bodies need funding to carry out their work. In this regard, according to experts, the bodies should be funded by donors or local community funds. [1]

Another important issue in the activities of basin councils is their legal status, since their status plays an important role in their activities. An example for this can be their access to the funding system, as well as their ability to work and guarantee the performance of their functions. In addition, many experts want basin councils to become state organizations. [1]

2.5 Mechanism of basin councils

Mechanisms for river basin management — helps members of the bodies in the decision-making. Moreover, these mechanisms and methods help you make logical and constructive choices. This choice should be guided by an interconnected and balanced policy of all concerned people. A wide range of quantitative and qualitative methods is offered by system analysis, operations research, and management theory. These methods, combined with knowledge of Economics, hydrology, hydraulics, environmental science, sociology, and other relevant disciplines, are used to identify and evaluate alternative water management plans and implementation schemes. [11]

Planning and control of water resources is important in the field of water regulation. Despite scientific evidence, the essence of water resource planning is not always there. Also, data that is important in planning is generated in the context of systematic monitoring to determine the impact of management actions described resources on the socio-economic system, as well as on the hydraulic system — they also require monitoring. [3]

Modern definitions of democracy state that in order for public political decisions to be democratic, public participation in these decisions must be meaningful and active. In a top-down hierarchical political structure, it is very difficult for civil society to participate in policy development, given that opportunities for public participation are limited and often doomed to failure. [4]

Let's consider an example, according to which the decentralization of water resources management technical information can help management and stakeholders to resolve conflict situations, reduce work costs. Based on effective actions, it is possible to achieve efficiency and responsibility of all stakeholders. The opposite is true when there is no information, and there may be improper use of water resources. The limited use of technical information can contribute to a stronger technical application of solutions, which will subsequently negatively affect the positive management process. We will confirm that with limited access to data, there may be fewer interested parties, which confirms the need for monitoring. Management of water resources in the world differs in the presence of different schemes for the use of information and management systems. An example is the democratization, decentralization of resource management to the limit of the river basin. This has become relevant for positive resource management in the IWRM approach. [2]

In addition, in the direction of water resources management, knowledge has an impact on learning, supporting responses in the world. We can't do without critical information about traditional and new management models, despite the different results. In terms of normative planning, knowledge can make it possible for decision-makers to increase their effectiveness for the subsequent process of working in a given direction. It can also have a positive impact on the democratization of products through the creation of pools, where you can use the expertise to find out what interests there are on this issue. In other words, when participants in an organization have access to information, they can not only become participants in decision-making negotiations, but they can also make more significant decisions. In this sense, it is important to understand the significance of facts that are relevant to the use of information, to increase payments for water management, and to democratize science. This study can also serve as a basis for institutional design and management of water resources at the practical level. [2]

Modern definitions of democracy state that in order for public political decisions to be democratic, public participation in these decisions must be meaningful and active. In a top-down hierarchical political structure, it is very difficult for civil society to participate in policy development, given that opportunities for public participation are limited and often doomed to failure. [4]

3. Conclusion

Integrated water resources management (IWRM) encourages decision makers to make science-based and stakeholder-verified decisions. The goal is to develop politically viable solutions that satisfy both natural resource professionals and the public, who will live in an increasingly complex scenario management environment.

In the context of rapidly growing environmental degradation and the above-mentioned trends to increase demand and reduce water resources, the IWRM approach is the guiding principle of water resources management. Similarly, the process of political decentralization is based on the understanding that water resources management (in its forms, mechanisms, practices and results) is always embedded in a broader socio-political context and that, although the processes of centralization and decentralization seem to play a role for RBM.

Public authorities should provide structuring of public participation in basin events, and moreover in decision-making processes. In addition, government agencies should make scientific information available to the entire society. In this regard, the importance of the voices of ordinary people increases when they are provided with information about themselves. This will help to improve relations with stakeholders, as well as lead to scientifically rational solutions. However, there should not be pressure to make quick temporary decisions, this will undoubtedly prevent the interaction of the public with scientific data, so the education of citizens in science is not fully implemented. Simple water users should be directed to the knowledge and methods of work of basin councils. This contribution will help to identify the existing problem in the basin and make the right decision on water resource.

Thus, the creation of BC, which represent an active organizational form of participation of all stakeholders in water resources management, will contribute together with the BWA (Basin Water Association) to effective water resources management at the river basin level, effective control over water distribution and water quality, and the conservation of natural complexes.

Moreover, it can be concluded that the main purpose of basin councils is to regulate surface water, in particular for agricultural use. In order for water resources management to be more polycentric, power should be transferred to lower levels of those responsible for water resources management. Similarly, this process of devolution should empower river basin councils to participate in making and implementing water policy decisions.

References:

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  2. Maria C., Andrew R., Nathan L.., Formiga‐Johnsson R., Donald R. Water Resources Research: Technical knowledge and water resources management: A comparative study of river basin councils, Brazil. — Advaning Earth and Space Science, 2010 — Volume46. Issue 6.
  3. Kumar D., Batchelor C., James A. Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research: Chapter 11 — Operationalizing IWRM concepts at the basin level: From theory to practice. — From Catchment Management to Managing River Basins, 2019. — 2–354p.
  4. Pacheco R. Biodiversity, Natural Resources and Environment // Polycentric water governance in Mexico: Beyond the governing-by-river-basin-council model // 2013.
  5. Susan J., Damon M., Lucas C., Matthew B. Science on the Sideline: Pragmatism and the Yellowstone River Basin Advisory Council // International Journal Water Resource management. — 2019. — Volume33. — P. 1411–1424.
  6. Есполов Т., Тлеулесова А. «Интегрированное управление водными ресурсами Балкаш–Алакольского бассейна» // Исследования результаты. — 2011.
  7. Методическое пособие по созданию Бассейновых советов // Комитет по водным ресурсам Министерства сельского хозяйства Республики Казахстан. // № 320. — от 26 декабря 2005 г. — С. 4–6.
  8. Rosa M., Formiga J., Karin K. — Institutional and policy analysis of river basin management. // World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. — 2005. — P. 4.
  9. Бассейновый совет — механизм консолидации власти и общественности // ЭкоДело — 2013.
  10. Бассейновые советы — новый подход к управлению водными ресурсами и водосбережению в речных бассейнах Республики Казахстан // CAWATERinfo.
  11. Global Water Partnership Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) // Integrated Water Resources Management. — 2000. № 4. — P. 9–30.
  12. Руководство по интегрированному управлению водными ресурсами в бассейнах / под ред. В. И. Соколова: Global Water Partnership.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): IWRM, RBM, BWA, GTS, TAC, интегрированное управление, Казахстан.


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