The main sources of air pollution and potential of dispersion of the atmosphere in the Temirtau city | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Отправьте статью сегодня! Журнал выйдет 6 февраля, печатный экземпляр отправим 10 февраля.

Опубликовать статью в журнале

Автор:

Рубрика: Экология

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №46 (336) ноябрь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 12.11.2020

Статья просмотрена: 2 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Бауыржанова, А. Б. The main sources of air pollution and potential of dispersion of the atmosphere in the Temirtau city / А. Б. Бауыржанова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 46 (336). — С. 66-68. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/336/75139/ (дата обращения: 27.01.2021).



The article examines the state of the atmospheric air of the city of Temirtau, identifies the main sources, enterprises that pollute the city air, and their share in the pollution of the city's air basin, the study calculates the dissipation potential of the city's atmosphere and the recurrence of meteorological indicators for many years. This research shows that the meteorological conditions of Central Kazakhstan allow the atmosphere of the city to clean itself and allows the main reason for the high level of pollution of these industrial enterprises operating on the territory.

Key words: atmosphere, pollution, air pollution, extremely acceptable concentration, harmful substances, air, polluting enterprises, repeatability of meteorological indicators.

Anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere is associated with mechanical, physical, chemical and biological factors, which are most noticeable in places where people live compactly, especially in megalopolises, where weather conditions also noticeably differ from similar parameters outside the city. Millions of tons of pollutants are constantly present in the atmosphere. For example, in our republic, according to the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan on statistics, emissions of the most common harmful substances are growing every year.

Central Kazakhstan is one of the leading industrial regions of the country with a developed heavy territorial-industrial complex. The coal mining, metallurgical and chemical industries of the republic are of international importance. Heavy industry is primarily associated with coal mining, processing of non-ferrous, ferrous and rare metals needed for metallurgy. The territorial industrial complex is based on 3 production units: Karaganda-Temirtau, Balkhash and Zhezkazgan. There is an industry specializing in the production of energy-intensive and material-intensive products of non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy, coal and a number of valuable minerals. There is also mechanical engineering, chemical industry, production of building materials, light and food industries. The industrial link Karaganda-Temirtau includes Abay, Saran, Shakhtinsk and a number of other urban-type settlements. This production link is associated with a single technological flow: coal mines — processing plants — coke plants — rolling steel shops of the metallurgical plant in Temirtau. The main sources of pollution are located in the eastern and northwestern parts of the city [1].

A characteristic feature of Temirtau is the lack of clear zoning of industrial and residential areas. The historical settlement of the city was formed between two industrial zones. LLP «LLP «Temirtau Electrometallurgical Plant»« and LLP «Bassel Group» are located in the western industrial zone. The residential area near the enterprises is located at a distance of 500 m from the industrial zones. There are no recreation areas, medical institutions, reserves and other objects on this territory. Currently, due to the existing development, it is not possible to revise the area of the sanitary protection zone. The largest industrial complexes are JSC «ArcelorMittal Temirtau» and LLP «Temirtau Electrometallurgical Plant». The number of stationary discharge sources in the city is 1205, of which 959 have been organized, 372 enterprises equipped with dust collecting devices have been equipped. Other enterprises are located outside the city of Temirtau, but they also have a high degree of direct impact on this city. These include JSC «Central Asia Cement», JSC «Karaganda plant of asbestos-cement products» located in Aktau village, north of Temirtau, LLP «Temirtau non-ferrous metal» in Tokarevka village, north-west of Temirtau, Production Association «Karagandy non-ferrous metal», LLP «Kazakhmys Corporation» are located 8 km north-east of Temirtau in Nurkazgan. At the same time, the amount of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere used in the manufacture of automobiles has increased. The following figure shows the share of industrial 1enterprises in air pollution in Temirtau (Figure 1).

Fig. 1. The share of industrial enterprises in atmospheric air pollution in Temirtau

As shown in Figure 1, in Temirtau air polluted by 70 % JSC «ArcelorMittal Temirtau», by LLP «TEMP» 15 %, LLP « Bassel Group» 7 %, LLP «Temirtau non-ferrous metal» 3 %, LLP «Kazakhmys Corporation» 2,2 %, JSC «Central Asia Cement» 2 %, Production Association «Karagandy non-ferrous metal» 0,8 %.

Background pollution is mainly caused by natural factors as well as the transboundary movement of polluted air from neighboring countries. An important source of air pollution in the Karaganda region is the fuel and energy complex. It is a complex inter-industry system for the production and production of fuel and energy, their transportation, distribution and use. Much of the air pollution (85 %) comes from the manufacturing industry [2].

For forecasting and analyzing the level of atmospheric air pollution, it is necessary to take into account meteorological factors that lead to the accumulation of impurities in the atmosphere, dispersion and washout from the atmosphere. Various indicators are used to assess the ability of the atmosphere to self-purify: atmospheric pollution potential, the self-purification potential of the atmosphere, and the Selegey coefficient.

In 1990, T. Selegey presented a similar complex indicator of the influence of meteorological conditions on the self-cleaning of the atmosphere — the potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (PDA), which is calculated by the formula:

PDA = (P calm + P fog ) / (P prec. + P wind ) (1)

where Р calm , Р fog , Р prec. , Р wind — are the frequency of days with calm, fog, precipitation ≥0.5 mm and wind ≥6 m / s (respectively).

As follows from the formula, in cases where ballast if PDA (CPA, MPA)> 1, then in the investigated area the conditions for the accumulation of impurities prevail over the conditions conducive to their dispersion. And vice versa. Moreover, the more ballast, the worse the conditions for dispersing pollution in the atmosphere. Conditions under which PDA> 2 are extremely unfavorable from the standpoint of the self-cleaning ability of the atmosphere. In the articles of T. S. Selegey, G. Zinchenko, N. N. Bezuglova presents a formula for calculating the potential of dispersion of the atmosphere, also shows the difference between the climatic potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (CPDA) and the meteorological potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (MPDA). T. S. Selegey proposed using the climatic potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (CPDA) to calculate the potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (PDA) [3].

The table below calculates the climatic potential of dispersion of the atmosphere in the city of Temirtau in order to assess the ability of the atmosphere of this city to self-purify (Table 1).

Table 1

Recurrence of meteorological indicators, %

Meteo indicator

jan.

feb.

march

apr.

may

june

july

aug.

sept.

oct .

n ov.

d ec .

calm (windless weather)

43

42

39

32

31

34

36

41

41

39

41

45

wind speed

21,3

22,3

18,2

17,5

18

13

8,9

8,4

12

15

17,7

17,6

precipitation

70,6

59,4

42,6

52,4

81,7

64

77,7

50,3

43,3

67,8

69,7

68,4

fog

3,9

2,9

7,7

4,0

1,0

0,3

0,3

1,0

2,0

3,9

7,0

5,5

CPDA

0,51

0,55

0,77

0,51

0,32

0,45

0,42

0,71

0,78

0,52

0,55

0,59

As shown in Table 1, to calculate the climatic potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (CPDA) of Temirtau, long-term data were taken, that is, the frequency of calm, wind speed above ≥6 m/s, recurrence of fogs, recurrence of precipitation over ≥ 0.5 mm, from 1965 to 2000. The higher the calm and fog values, the closer the CPDA value is to 1. The lower the rainfall and wind speed values, the lower the CPDA value, that is, below 1. This indicates that precipitation and wind speeds above 6 m/s reduce the pollution. On the other hand, meteorological conditions, such as calm and fog, lead to stagnation of pollutants and their humidification in fog. The following figure shows the long-term course of the climatic potential of dispersion of the Temirtau's atmosphere (Figure 2).

Fig. 2. The climatic potential of dispersion of the Temirtau's atmosphere

As shown in Figure 2, according to long-term data, the highest values ​​of the climatic potential of dispersion of the atmosphere (were observed in September (0.78) and March (0.77). The lowest CPDA value was recorded in May (0.32) and July (0.42). The CPDA rate varies from year to year, but the CPDA value is less than 1 in all years.

This shows that the meteorological conditions of the Central Kazakhstan region create favorable conditions for the self-cleaning of the atmosphere in Temirtau, and make it possible to assume that the presence of operating industrial enterprises worsen the ecological situation of the city, in particular the state of atmospheric air. That is, in fact, the city has a good ability to self-purify the atmosphere. But the presence of enterprises and constant emissions into the atmosphere do not allow the city air to properly clean itself. It is possible to say that the climate of the region and the repeatability of meteorological elements allow to reduce air pollution, if in the city and its neighborhoods there are no regular industrial emissions. The most effective technological measures are the reduction of negative impacts on the air of the city, although the change in the technology of the production process will significantly reduce or exclude emissions.

It is recommended to use technical and sanitary measures in technological outfits. They do not participate in the technology of the production process, but in the purification of gaseous emissions and their distribution. It is desirable to install filters.

References:

  1. Zhakatayeva B. T. Natural and anthropogenic conditions of air pollution in Central Kazakhstan. Bulletin of KarSU. ̶ No. 3, Ser. Biology, medicine, geography. ̶ 2005.
  2. Suimukhanov U. A., Iskakova A. B., Features of air pollution in the city of Karaganda and the Karaganda region. Bulletin of KarSU. ̶ No. 4, Ser. Biology, medicine, geography. ̶ 2005.
  3. T. S. Selegey, G. S. Zinchenko, N. N. Bezuglaya Taking into account the meteorological potential of self-purification of the atmosphere in solving problems of industrial development of territories. ̶ P.: Polzunovsky Bulletin, 2005.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): LLP, CPDA, JSC, PDA, CPA, MPA, MPDA.


Ключевые слова

air, atmosphere, air pollution, pollution, extremely acceptable concentration, harmful substances, polluting enterprises, repeatability of meteorological indicators
Задать вопрос