It is impossible to imagine our life without music. We come across it at every step: at concerts, from TV screens, on the radio, it sounds on discs of players, accompanies holidays and feasts. Having originated with humanity, music is the same product of human thought, like everything created by man, the same laws rule here. As in any area of spiritual life, the dialectic of art, and hence music, is a continuation and development of the dialectic of nature.
Key words: music, museum, education, spiritual culture, musical instruments .
Hardly anyone today will argue: do people need music? It merged with our life. Music has entered every house, it is listened by adults and children — folk, classical, modern, various styles and directions, entertaining and serious. We listen to it from the moment of awakening, hear it during the day, fall asleep to the sound of music. We hear it when we're resting, when we're on the road, when we're working hard, when we're going on a trip. We always hear her. With it we are born, with it go on life.
The focus of the musicians has always been the sound, its most important features from the point of view of musical art. These features cannot be fully explained by the laws of physics and mathematics. The sounds of music have a strong, sometimes difficult to explain the impact on a person. They are able to cause the listener such emotions, to awaken that can not afford any of the other arts.
But the sounds themselves are not music. Only when a person began to organize them to Express their thoughts and feelings — there was music. Centuries of experience and special studies have shown that music affects the psyche and physiology of man.
The problem of the formation of an integral spiritual personality, educated on the principles of universal morality, for centuries worried mankind. One of the means of developing the spiritual realm of the people, is the art of music. Music creates a person, preserves and supports his life. She heals not only the soul but also the body. Music opens the laws of harmony of the world to the person, and only by means of fine music it is possible to bring up feelings of true beauty, love, empathy.
Musical education is an integral part of the spiritual and moral education of the younger generation. The main task is not so much to teach music, but to influence the spiritual world of students through it. The formation of the musical culture of the individual, and through it — the artistic, aesthetic and General spiritual culture should begin in early childhood, when the child has not yet developed interests, habits, tastes that need to be broken or rebuilt. A small child is open, trusting, receptive. Of great importance is the musical development of the child in the family. Listening to records of musical fairy tales, fragments of classical music, learning to play a musical instrument, independent music-all this has a great impact on children.
In not so distant times, when musical culture was an integral part of the spiritual values recognized by the society, children, despite the difference of classes, received rich, diverse musical impressions. In everyday life, the child heard lullabies of the mother, folk music, among which he grew up. All folk festivals, ceremonies were accompanied by singing, dancing, the sound of folk instruments. In wealthy families, children could often hear music performed by family members, collective home music was widespread.
Unfortunately, popular now mass culture presents children and adults with dubious examples of light music, and truly valuable, original Russian music is forgotten. Musical, aesthetic and spiritual education of children should be built on the music of good and harmony, on the best examples of Russian, classical, Church music, on our beautiful songs. Speaking about the educational potential of musical art, we can not say about folk music. The song wealth of the people is its spiritual wealth. The song reflects not only the breadth and generosity of character, but also the mystery of his invincibility. Today, the introduction to the values of folk art is necessary, as it embodies not just the past of culture, but also the moral properties and abilities of the human soul. Folk music brings up an active life position of modern man, gives him high guidelines in life.
The Museum is a mirror in which the national community looks, trying to find its image, to cover history, culture, territory with a single glance.
Museums are perceived as a kind of frozen history. Can music become a Museum exhibit? Maybe! Museum of folk musical instruments named after Yhlas-the house in which the music lives.
In the world of values, music, the most dynamic art, always comes first. The language of music without words is clear to everyone, the cultural heritage of music unites peoples and ethnic groups.
Moreover, the unique values collected in the Museum are alive! They sound, they sing, and eventually become the «Adjuster» of the soul. A visit to the Museum is like a visit to a concert, on the stage of which, along with Kazakh music, other peoples of the world also sound.
So In the Museum of folk musical instruments named after Yhlas-there are often traditional musical evenings devoted to a particular topic, which positively affect the development of spiritual culture. Authentic musical instruments of cultural figures of different eras, who stood at the origins of national culture, are periodically voiced at thematic evenings. Also, there are creative evenings of different cultures and nationalities, whose musical instruments are on display. Thanks to such activities, our Museum contributes to the implementation of the tasks set by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Ah. Nazarbayev on spiritual revival.
Changing the social role of domestic museums, i.e. the system of ideas about the purpose of the Museum in society and the essence of its work, is closely related to the changes that occur in modern society. The attitude towards the Museum audience, which has become perceived as an equal participant in the communicative process, dialogue carried out in the Museum environment, is changing. The Museum is no longer seen as a place where works of art are kept, which can be truly appreciated and understood only by representatives of the intellectual elite. This is an institution where everyone is happy to spend their free time.
The most important components of the Museum are its three-part formula:
− building (architectural structure)
− the visitor — user of the Museum of knowledge, Museum information.
As a result, the Museum workers have a task: to be able to acquaint all visitors, even those far from the humanitarian sphere of activity, with the cultural values that the Museum keeps.
In the «traditional» sense, the Museum is perceived as a repository of historical and cultural heritage associated with educational activities. In the» innovative «understanding of the Museum-a category of «active», it is possible to use animation, audiovisual methods, theatrical performances.
The inclusion of intangible heritage in the life of museums brings diversity to their cultural and educational activities, forms historical memory, consciousness, spirituality, tolerance. In a number of museums on the basis of domestic and foreign experience are developing different forms, techniques, areas of work with a diverse Museum audience, including in the orbit of the intangible forms of cultural heritage. This allows the visitor to emotionally feel their involvement in the culture of ancestors.
The problem of turning the Museum into a cultural and educational center can be solved by combining various forms of cultural and educational activities in the system. The Museum, as one of the cultural institutions, performs such a synthesizing function: «it intersects many kinds of art, it embodies the ideas of heritage, continuity of traditions and customs. In the Museum there is a direct communication of the viewer and the exhibit, not constrained by any obstacles, information–visual–cognitive contact of the person with the original, which has a special attractive energy».
It is in the Museum in the process of study and scientific description of the subject experts reconstructed its relationship with the environment of existence, is determined and recorded in the Museum documentation of its social significance, so that the subject acts as a material evidence of phenomena in nature, culture and society.
- Galkina E. L., Kuzmina E. E., Nikishin N. Ah. «Museum and Ethnology». Moscow, 1997.
- Kosova I. M., Medvedeva E. Domestic Museum business in line with international trends // Museum for all. Collection of works of the creative laboratory «Museum pedagogy». M., 2003. P. 6–17.