This article is dedicated to the analysis of clusters as a new unique factor of increasing competitiveness in modern economy. The author examines various approaches towards examination of the concept of clusters, determines their characteristic features and generated effects. The description is given to common and specific features of clusters. Particular attention is paid to the presence of synergetic effects in cluster due to its special structure.
Keywords: regional policy, competitiveness, innovation process, synergistic effect of clusters, main features of clusters, cluster.
In the Russian language, the «cluster» came, as usual, from English. The word cluster — [ˈklʌstə] — has many meanings, but originally comes from the Old English clyster, which means «bunch», «bundle», «group» or «clot».
The concept of clusters was first introduced into economic science by the American scientist Michael Porter in 1990. According to the classical definition, cluster — is a group of interconnected companies concentrated on a geographical basis, suppliers of various industries serving their organizations.
Cluster is primarily a social concept. It is formed by a community of people with similar economic interests. Cluster is a way of community self-organization for survival in the conditions of uncompromising international contention, when the significance of national borders as some economic regulators decreases .
Some economists think that the regions in which clusters are formed become leaders in the economy of a given state. These regions begin to determine the competitiveness of the national economy.
And those geographical locations where there are no clusters, fade into the background and often are experiencing the strongest social crises. In the cluster policy must be observed mandatory rules: costs must be competitive, product quality must be consistent with world standards, products must be safe, and customer service levels must be remarkably high.
In such clusters, you can easily receive new technologies and work to high international standards. Clusters take different forms depending on its depth and complexity, but in most cases the company include the finished product or service companies, suppliers of specialized inputs, components, machines, and services; financial institutions; firms in related industries.
Clusters also include firms operating in grassroots industries (i.e., with distribution channels or consumers); by-product manufacturers, specialized infrastructure providers; government and other organizations that provide training, education, information flow, research and technical support (such as universities, structures for advanced training in free time); as well as standard setting agencies.
Government agencies that significantly influence where cluster can also be considered part of it. Determining the components of the cluster is better to start with a review of a large firm or a concentration of large firms, and then reveal the presence of a chain associated vertical below- and upstream firms and organizations.
Next you need to find the horizontal branches that pass through common channels or producing by-products, or services. Additional horizontal branches of the chain are set on the basis of the use of similar specialized inputs or technologies, or linked through supplies.
The Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation included 38 industrial clusters in the register in different regions of the country. Two components are critically important for the development of an industrial cluster.
- The efforts of the region’s leadership aimed at creating conditions for the growth of entrepreneurial activity, support for production activities, the ability to interest and attract investors;
- The presence on the territory of the historically developed corresponding industrial base with developed transport and engineering communications.
The factors of economic growth achieved through clustering include:
- Intensification of innovative activity of subjects due to the accumulation of knowledge in the cluster and the transfer of knowledge, experience, skills, diffusion of know-how as a result of the migration of highly qualified personnel in the cluster; conducting training seminars for cluster members;
- Transparency of information on demand intensity, consumer preferences;
- Improvement of methods for solving complex problems;
- The flexibility and speed of development of innovation;
- Internal specialization and standardization due to the presence in the cluster of flexible small business entrepreneurial structures representing innovative growth points;
- Minimization of costs for the introduction of innovations; acquisition of innovations in the framework of international technological cooperation;
- The development of entrepreneurship through the creation by large manufacturers of a cluster of demand for specialized material and technical resources and services;
- The development of outsourcing, when small and medium-sized enterprises produce products, works and services for key subjects of the cluster;
- Attracting foreign investment due to network cooperation of cluster entities with foreign suppliers and investors;
- Expansion of exports by entities through joint marketing programs, as well as organizational support for exporters in the region.
- The listed factors of the cluster concept of economic growth of the national economy indicate the need to develop methods for the formation of cluster policy .
Obstacles to creating real clusters:
- Lack of cooperation between competitors in the field of research, education, marketing;
- Lack of awareness of business and government about the benefits of cluster ties;
- Underdeveloped partnerships with local government; weak ties between enterprises and higher educational and scientific institutions;
- Lack of a legislative framework regulating relations between partners, a non-profit organization uniting the cluster entities in the region.
As an example of potential Russian clusters we can lead aerospace clusters in Moscow and Samara, information and telecommunications cluster in Moscow food clusters in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Belgorod region, shipbuilding cluster in St. Petersburg and others.
For the period 2016–2017 the tender commission selected 7 joint cluster projects with an estimated cost of 3.2 billion rubles, concluded agreements on the provision of subsidies for the entire duration of the project (no more than 5 years), and provided subsidies in the amount of over 600 million rubles.
All projects are aimed at localizing production from sectoral import substitution plans and will be completed by 2020. In the federal budget for 2019–2021 subsidy funds are planned to complete the financing of selected projects (560 million rubles), while all projects already sell their products within the cluster and have guaranteed demand from other enterprises participating in the industrial cluster.
This effect has already ensured the achievement of the following indicators: an increase in production cooperation between the initiators of a joint cluster project in the amount of over 2 billion rubles (plan for the 5th year — 2.7 billion), an increase in tax deductions to the federal budget of more than 1.2 billion rubles (plan for the 5th year — 2.1 billion rubles), more than 1 thousand high-performance jobs were created (the plan for the 5th year is 1,400), while the cost of creating 1 job for the federal budget amounted to 0.9 million rubles.
Based on the results of the competitive selection of 2018, 17 projects were selected with a value of 18.5 billion rubles, the requested subsidies amount to 4.6 billion rubles — 25 % of the project cost, the volume of cooperation between project initiators will increase by 11.3 billion rubles. until the end of 2022, as evidenced by agreements and (or) agreements of intent between participants in industrial clusters involved in the implementation of joint projects, the amount of tax deductions will increase by 10.3 billion rubles.
By 1 ruble of the subsidy, the growth in the volume of cooperation with cluster participants will increase by 2.4 rubles, exports will increase by 2.8 rubles and tax revenues to the federal budget will increase by 2.2 rubles. Based on the results of the implementation of joint projects selected in 2018, it is expected to create 3,500 high-performance jobs.
Given the effectiveness of already selected projects in case of implementation of the proposed activities and their financing in full (18.2 billion rubles during 2019–2024), it is planned to select and finance up to 140–150 joint cluster projects, which will provide an increase by the end of 2024 54 billion rubles in industrial cooperation between supplying enterprises of the second and third levels with exporting enterprises, an increase in tax deductions to the federal budget of up to 46 billion rubles as a cumulative result, the use of up to 70 % of equipment and technology in the production of export products.
- Magomedova A. M. The influence of cluster policy on the Russian economy // Actual directions of scientific research: development prospects: materials of the IX Intern. scientific-practical conf. (Cheboksary, July 19, 2019). — Cheboksary: central nervous system Interactive plus, 2019. — 132 p. — ISBN 978–5-6043213–0-0. doi: 10.21661 / a-629
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