Learning languages is the most important condition for the development of speech and human thinking. The development of linguistic ability is closely related to the process of social adaptation of a person in society and is formed in the process of interpersonal communication. Any violation of mental development negatively affects the formation of the child’s speech, and, as a consequence, the process of socialization of a person in society.
A person transfers the bulk of information through speech, by identifying violations of speech development; it is possible to identify violations of the organism itself. Linguistics is an important part of special pedagogy and studies the language, its essence, structure, functions, and development. The analysis of the development of speech activity helps to identify the main patterns of language development, subsequently to trace the causes of violations, and to develop ways of pedagogical correction of these disorders.
Among the problems of linguistics and psycholinguistics, the following can be distinguished:
Firstly, the problem of the ratio of linguistic and psycholinguistic units. Linguists consider the language in the form of a complex multi-level education, in which units of lower levels are components of elements of higher levels. Linguistic units are correlated with a language or language standard, i.e. with the language system and the language norm objectively existing in the “memory” of a social group.
The individual encounters language in his objective being: language acts for him as a certain external norm, in a consistent approximation to which, or in the form of speech actions included in non-speech activity. The structure of speech activity or speech action in principle coincides with the structure of any action, i.e. includes phases of orientation, planning, implementation, and control. Language acquisition involves the selection and use of various strategies for mastering speech, i.e., obeys the heuristic principle.
The second important issue is the development of children's speech. Ontogenesis of linguistic ability is a complex interaction, on the one hand, of the process of communication between an adult and a child, and on the other hand, of the development of objective and cognitive activity of a child.
According to domestic psycholinguists, the development of speech is primarily the development of a way of communication. The child faces a specific communicative task. To resolve it, the child must have some set of tools.
As such, the words of the “adult” language and the rules for their organization into large units of syntagma and sentences are used. However, the child is not able to use these funds in the same way as adults.
The gradually developing linguistic ability of a child ensures the assimilation, production, reproduction, and adequate perception of linguistic signs.
Thus, in the process of developing children's speech, the nature of the interaction of the language means available to the child and the nature of the functioning of these means, i.e. the way to use the language for the purposes of cognition and communication. Comparison of changes these interactions with normal and impaired mental development will help to better organize pedagogical influences appropriate to the type of violation.
The third problem is the development of symbolic function in ontogenesis. In the concept of L. S. Vygotsky and other domestic authors, this problem is associated with the formation of linguistic ability and the prerequisites for the development of thinking and speech. If we consider the genetic roots of thinking and speech, then we can conclude that their development takes place in parallel and unevenly, you can find both the pre-speech stage of development of intelligence and the pre-intellectual stage of development of speech. Up to a certain point, speech and thinking develop independently of each other.
At the age of about two years, according to L. S. Vygotsky, the child discovers the symbolic function of speech, from that moment his thinking becomes speech, and speech — intellectual. The word becomes the unity of sound and meaning and contains all the basic properties inherent in speech thinking in general. It should be noted that verbal thinking in an adult does not exhaust all forms of either thought or all forms of speech.
The fourth important problem for special pedagogy is the analysis of the originality of language as a social phenomenon, as a necessary condition for the existence of society throughout the history of mankind, as a condition of material and spiritual being in all areas of social space. For special pedagogy, the provision on the existence of a close relationship between the socialization of the individual and the social aspects of verbal communication is especially important. Moreover, in the system of social determinants of speech activity should be included those that will reflect the relationships that connect communicating people with wider systems.
In the social character of the language, two aspects can be distinguished — the social nature of linguistic ability and the social conditioning of speech activity. The social nature of linguistic ability is its main characteristic: on the one hand, it is formed in the process of mastering the system of linguistic signs in which the social being of people is modeled, on the other hand, the form of activity that creates the prerequisites for this learning is crucial — interpersonal communication.
The meaning of linguistic signs in a generalized form captures the historical experience of people. Through a system of signs, i.e. indirectly, a person appropriates human abilities, objectified in cultural phenomena. This completes the reproduction in the properties and abilities of the individual of the historically established properties of the human species, including such a property as the ability to use the language.
Finally, a problem of fundamental importance for special pedagogy is the psycholinguistic analysis of deviations from normal speech development. Speech pathology is defined as a violation of speech activity due to the lack of formation or disorder of psychophysiological mechanisms that ensure the assimilation, production, reproduction and adequate perception of linguistic signs by a member of the linguistic collective, i.e. as a violation of language ability. This definition allows you to contrast speech pathology deviations from the norms of speech behavior. With speech pathology, we are dealing with violations of both skills and abilities, while a person needs specially organized help. In cases of speech pathology, the question arises of the possibility or impossibility of communication.
Thus, linguistic and psycholinguistic analysis allows us to strengthen the conceptual basis of special pedagogy, to determine new scientifically based approaches to the classification of violations, including speech, to outline ways and means of adequate pedagogical influences based on taking into account the defect structure in a certain category of children.
Taking into account that any violation in the development of the child negatively affects the formation of social interaction skills, it is important to know the general laws of the existence and development of the language, as well as those obstacles that appear in a child with disabilities as a partner in social communication. This will allow us to determine the laws that should underlie the teacher’s rehabilitation activities to develop social communication skills in children that contribute to their full socialization.
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