New stage of foreign partnership of Uzbekistan geologists | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: История

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №26 (316) июнь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 25.06.2020

Статья просмотрена: 3 раза

Библиографическое описание:

Бахтиёрзода, О. Б. New stage of foreign partnership of Uzbekistan geologists / О. Б. Бахтиёрзода. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 26 (316). — С. 204-210. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/316/71991/ (дата обращения: 07.08.2020).



The article discusses promising areas of partnership between geologists of the Republic of Uzbekistan and geologists of China. Japan, USA and Russia. The experience and achievements of past years are being analyzed; the need and possibilities for further joint work are being studied.

Keywords: exploration, geology, geophysics, scientific exchange, experience, internship, advanced training, joint project.

The accelerated pace of development of the economy of the Republic of Uzbekistan dictates its own conditions, the most important of which is the expansion of the fuel and energy and raw materials base. Search, development and mining have always been a priority in the development of science in Uzbekistan.

At present, our country is implementing multifaceted systematic cooperation with a number of foreign countries in the field of geology. Among them are China, Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, Italy, India, Norway and the UK.

One of the first Uzbek scientists who realized the need for joint work was Academician I.Kh. Khamrabaev (1920–2002), who in the 90s of the past century established cooperation with Chinese experts in the field of geology. In particular, in 1994 he was visited by well-known Chinese geologists Dr. Li Jin Xian and academician He Ji Li to study and predict mineral deposits in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region [4].

In 1989 The State Council of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) approved a plan for the development of oil-bearing areas and oil and gas production in the Tarim basin, as well as the creation of the «Oil Exploration and Production Office in Tarima» in the city of Korla. The development of the oil and gas resources of the Tarim basin was elevated to the rank of state economic strategy.

Since 1999 The PRC government has been implementing the «Sibu da Kaifan» strategy («Full-scale development of the northwest»). In the context of this strategy, China is pursuing a policy of transforming the XUAR into one of the main bases of the country's oil industry in the shortest possible time [10].

Joint research has been very successful. The results of the work of scientists of the two countries were devoted to a special conference held by the Academy of Sciences of China in Beijing in May 2000.

Large-scale work to clarify oil and gas reserves, as well as increase their production, was carried out also in the northern part of the XUAR. For this purpose, 7 Chinese and 8 foreign oil producing and oil refining companies were involved. However, this does not solve the problem of supply lagging behind China's growing demand for oil. Therefore, China pays great attention to ensuring oil reserves in the countries surrounding it. In particular, China attaches particular importance to the implementation of the project to draw up a fundamental geological map of Eurasia. Work on the implementation of the project was launched in 1996 and involves China, Russia, Kazakhstan and five European countries. Currently, joint work is ongoing to compile a fundamental geological map of Eurasia with the participation of five hundred specialists. The map will contain information on the geological structure of two continents, the processes of the formation of the earth's crust and the formation of minerals, the refinement of natural resources and their features. For the years 2000–2007, the first stage of work was carried out, 32 large deposits were identified in Russia and Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, of which 16 extend towards the XUAR of the PRC [2].

Following the visit of the First President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov to China on July 20, 2013 there was signed an Agreement on the establishment of the Uzbek — Chinese Center for Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the Institute of Geology and Geophysics named after H. Abdullaev of ANRUz and the State Program No. 305 of the Xinjiang Autonomous Republic of China to expand and deepen the study of the geology of the Tien Shan. The Center is engaged in joint scientific work, organizes regular scientific international conferences, exchanges scientific personnel and trains employees of both countries to improve their skills.

The partner of the Institute from the Chinese side for many years is the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry (PRC) [11].

On August 28, 2009, the First President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov signed the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers «On the establishment of a joint venture» UZ-CHINA UZAN LLC, «with a registered capital of 8,57 million US Dollars, in order to further expand exploration and extraction of solid useful minerals, the development of technologies for the enrichment of black-shale uranium ores in the republic with the attraction of foreign investment.

According to the Agreement between the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Geology and Mineral Resources (GosComGeo) and the State Committee for Development and Reforms of the People's Republic of China, the Boztau area in the Navoi region was determined as prospective for identifying a black-shale type uranium deposit. From the Chinese side, the Guangdong Nuclear Energy Corporation «CGNPC Uranium Resources Co., Ltd « is participating in works. [12].

In total, over 50 agreements have been signed between Uzbekistan and China in the field of geology and mining.

CNPC China has agreed with Uzbekneftegaz to develop gas condensate fields in the Karakul investment block. Development costs make up 650 million US Dopllars.

From 2007 to 2012, this company conducted geological exploration in the Ferghana, Bukhara-Khiva and Ustyurt oil and gas regions and invested 260.2 million US Dollars. Chinese geologists succeeded in discovering new fields — East Alat, Khojadavlat and Khojasayat. By the end of 2015, the costs of further exploration made up to 14.5 million US Dollars. [6]

In addition, Uzbekneftegaz extended a contract with CNODC for the exploration of new fields.

The projected production volume at these fields will amount to 1.5 billion cubic meters per year.

In June 2018 at the invitation of the GosComGeo the leaders and engineers of the Chinese scientific and trading company Xinyang, operating in the heavy machinery industry, CITIC, the mining and metallurgical industry company Henan Golong, and the Institute of Coal Industry of Henan arrived in our country. Specialists conducted a study of the conditions for the implementation of the project for the extraction of tungsten, molybdenum and copper at the Ingichka massif near the city of Kattakurgan.

The Chinese side decided not only to use the two existing mines, but also to build new ones, as well as conduct exploration work to find other minerals. The parties agreed to attract direct Chinese investment in the amount of 50–55 million US dollars [3].

Today, China is the largest investor and the second largest trading partner of Uzbekistan. Investment cooperation is expanding every year, the number of Chinese companies in Uzbekistan is growing at a steady pace, and cooperation on the implementation of joint projects in the field of high technology is actively growing. 482 enterprises with the participation of investors from the PRC operate in our republic, of which 78 are enterprises with 100 percent Chinese capital. In addition, the representative offices of 74 companies in this country are accredited [8].

The Kungrad Soda Plant, the Dehkanabad Potash Fertilizer Plant, built with the participation of Chinese experts, are successfully operating; modern high-speed electric locomotives supplied by the Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Company have proven themselves well.

According to the top-level agreements reached in 2013, a Sino-Uzbek high-tech industrial park was established in the form of a special industrial zone (SIZ) «Jizzakh». Today, a number of strategically important joint projects are being successfully implemented here. Among them, the production of mobile phones and other electronic devices by JV Peng-Sheng LLC and the Chinese ZTE (H.K.) LIMITED. Cooperation is developing with leading Chinese companies such as Huawei, Wenzhou Jingien, Hangzhou Jongwu Electronics Motors, etc. [8].

At present, the China National Oil and Gas Corporation is implementing a number of projects in Uzbekistan for geological exploration in the oil and gas regions of our republic, as well as for the construction of the third string of the Uzbekistan-China gas pipeline, designed to become a stable transit corridor for long-term natural gas supplies to China. Together with the Guangdong Nuclear Energy Corporation, prospective uranium deposits are being developed in the Navoi region with the introduction of separate uranium and vanadium extraction technology.

The Chinese CNK is involved in the deep processing of natural gas at the Mubarek gas chemical complex.

Development of promising, from the point of view of geology, uranium deposits is carried out by Uzbek specialists together with geologists from Japan.

Japan is one of the largest investment partners of Uzbekistan. In 2019 the volume of trade between the two countries amounted to almost 205 million US Dollars. [14]. In Uzbekistan, there are more than 15 joint ventures created with the participation of Japanese investments, and representative offices of 14 companies [7].

Cooperation with Japan is promising primarily in the field of high technology, modernization and diversification of the economy.

Together with Japanese experts, large-scale projects for the construction of the Bukhara oil refinery, Shurtan gas chemical complex, compressor station at the Kukdumalak field, reconstruction of the Ferghana oil refinery were implemented.

In 2006–2009 The GosComGeo also signed memorandums on the creation of a joint venture for uranium mining with the Japanese ITOCHU, Mitsui and Sojitz Corp. To date, the parties have not advanced in the implementation of the project beyond the stage of studying materials. According to industry experts, at the current world uranium prices, the development of black shale deposits is unprofitable.

Cooperation with Japanese companies in the field of uranium projects has been carried out since 2006. In August 2006, the Uzbek government signed a memorandum of understanding with the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), according to which Japanese companies will strengthen their presence in the uranium mining sector in the republic.

In 2006, the State Enterprise «Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combine» and the Japanese «ITOCHU Corp». signed a contract for the supply of uranium in 2007–2012 with minimum supply of 300 tons of uranium annually [16]. In April 2007, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the and the «Japan National Oil, Gas and Metals Corporation» (JOGMES) on cooperation in the field of mineral resources. Along with uranium, the Japanese company also showed interest in the exploration of rare earth metals.

Over the past five years, the government of Uzbekistan has been trying to attract foreign investors in the development of black-shale type uranium deposits, which are currently not being developed in the country and require significant investments economically. Deposits of a sandstone type, which are easier to develop, are developed by NMMC, which has a monopoly on the extraction, enrichment and export of uranium in the republic.

According to the GosComGeo, the explored and estimated uranium reserves amount to 185.8 thousand tons, of which 138.8 thousand tons are uranium deposits of sandstone type, 47 thousand tons — black shale type [15].

In 2007, NMMC increased uranium production by 0.5 % to 2.27 thousand tons. By 2011, uranium production was brought up to 3 thousand tons.

February 8, 2011 the governments of Japan and Uzbekistan signed a memorandum on enhancing economic cooperation on the development of deposits of uranium and rare earth metals, said PRIME-TASS.

As part of the document in 2011–2012 technologies and financial resources of leading Japanese companies were attracted to the extraction and production of unenriched uranium in Uzbekistan.

JOGMEC were submitted for consideration materials on uranium and rare earth metals. Based on the results of the research, the Japanese company should decide on further actions.

During the visit of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to Uzbekistan in October 2015. agreements were reached on the implementation of joint investment projects worth more than $ 8.5 billion, in particular, in such areas as the development and processing of mineral resources, oil and gas and chemical industries [18].

During the visit of the President of Uzbekistan Sh.M. Mirziyoyev to Japan in December 2019, a number of issues were also discussed to build technological cooperation in the implementation of joint projects in the energy sector, and in the field of mining [1].

Summing up, we can say that the cooperation of Uzbekistan with Japan and China in the field of geology is very important, because:

– firstly, it will allow for a detailed survey and identification of geologically important and promising deposits of Uzbekistan;

– secondly, it will allow attracting prominent geologists and the latest equipment to these studies;

– thirdly, it will help attract Chinese and Japanese investments in the geological sector of Uzbekistan.

Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan named after H. Abdullaeva for many decades remained the flagship of the development of geological science in the Central Asian region. In 2016, it was transferred from the system of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the GosComGeo.

Today one of the main tasks of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics named after H.Abdullaev under the GosComGeo is the further development of cooperation with foreign scientific institutions and centers in the field of geology and geophysics, the organization of scientific conferences, seminars, joint research, projects, internships and employee training.

Among the international partners of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics are: University of Warsaw (Warsaw, Poland); University of Girona (Girona, Spain); University of Arizona (USA); University of Brussels (Belgium); American University (Washington, USA); Institute of Oceanology and Geography, IGEM, GEOKHI, EM and IPZ RAS (Russia); Institute of Soil Science (Bayreuth, Germany); Institute of Geochemistry (Guangzhou, China); Bar Ilan University (Ramat Gan, Israel); University of Mainz (Mainz, Germany); University of Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Institute of Soil Science (Turkmenistan); State program No. 305 of the XUAR (China) [15].

Intensification of the Institute’s international relations with the external scientific geological community is primarily associated with cooperation with scientists from Germany, the Czech Republic, Russia and China.

In particular, as a result of joint work with the Institute of Geological Sciences and Natural Resources of Germany, seven sets of ArcInfo licensed programs were obtained for creating a unified database of hazardous geological processes and their mapping in GIS.

The Institute participates in the Interstate Program of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Uzbekistan «Peaceful exploration of the Earth and outer space» and in the International project «Geology, Minerageny and Assessment of the Current State of Central Eurasia».

The issue of cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is currently being worked out in the field of creating a digital database using modern GIS-series software products and international standard library systems (such as LIBRIS).

Every year, young specialists of the Institute go on internships to Germany, the USA, India, Turkey, Japan and other countries to improve their skills, exchange experience and master new knowledge and technologies.

The Institute’s specialists regularly take an active part in the work of the International Geological Congress, which is held every 4 years.

In 2004, while participating in the 32nd Congress in Florence (Italy), the proposals of the Institute participants to create an ecological and geological map of the world were supported by the world geological society and were included in the Congress decision.

In the 33rd International Geological Congress, which was held in 2008 in Oslo (Norway), a geological delegation from Uzbekistan consisting of 26 specialists, including young ones, also took an active part in the Congress in various areas of the sections. As a result of participation in the Congress, the geological youth of Uzbekistan entered the newly formed International Network of Young Scientists-Geologists (YES Network –Young Earth Scientist’s Network).

The employee of the HYDROINGEO Institute is currently the National Representative in YES from Uzbekistan.

The Institute’s specialists participated in the 34th International Geological Congress in 2012 in Brisbane (Australia) [13].

The Institute has signed a number of agreements with major Japanese companies specializing in high technology aimed at attracting Japanese technology and investment in such sectors of the economy of Uzbekistan as oil and gas, chemical, petrochemical, energy, mechanical engineering and textile industry. Agreements were also concluded on long-term supplies of uranium concentrate, on geological exploration at promising sites in Uzbekistan, and on the beginning of cooperation in the extraction of rare metals and rare earth elements.

Together with Japanese experts, large-scale projects for the construction of the Bukhara oil refinery, Shurtan gas chemical complex, compressor station at the Kukdumalak field, reconstruction of the Ferghana oil refinery were implemented.

In 2006–2009 GosComGeo also signed memorandums on the creation of a joint venture for uranium mining with the Japanese ITOCHU, Mitsui and Sojitz Corp. To date, the parties have not advanced in the implementation of the project beyond the stage of studying materials. According to industry experts, at the current world uranium prices, the development of black shale deposits is unprofitable.

Cooperation with Japanese companies in the field of uranium projects has been carried out since 2006. In August 2006, the Uzbek government signed a memorandum of understanding with the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), according to which Japanese companies will strengthen their presence in the uranium mining sector in the republic.

At the end of 2006, the State Enterprise «Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combine» and the Japanese «ITOCHU Corp». signed a contract for the supply of uranium in 2007–2012 with a minimum supply of 300 tons of uranium annually. In April 2007, a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the field of mineral resources was signed between the GosComGeo and the Japan National Oil, Gas and Metals Corporation (JOGMES). Along with uranium, the Japanese company also showed interest in the exploration of rare earth metals.

Over the past few years, the Uzbek government has been trying to attract foreign investors in the development of black-shale type uranium deposits, which are currently not being developed in the republic and require substantial investments economically. Deposits of a sandstone type, which are easier to develop, are developed by NMMC, which has a monopoly on the extraction, enrichment and export of uranium in the republic.

According to the GosComGeo, the explored and estimated uranium reserves amount to 185.8 thousand tons, of which 138.8 thousand tons are uranium deposits of sandstone type, 47 thousand tons — black shale type [15].

In 2007, NMMC increased uranium production by 0.5 % to 2.27 thousand tons. By 2011, uranium production was brought up to 3 thousand tons.

In 2012–2015 The Czech Republic implemented a project aimed at expanding cooperation with geologists of Uzbekistan. Funding will be provided from the NATO Science for Peace and Security program in the amount of 280 thousand euros, of which 85 % falls to the Uzbek side [13].

The grant from the NATO program in 2012, according to the Czech Embassy in Uzbekistan, provided an opportunity to return the mutual contacts of Czech and Uzbek geologists to the official level, as well as establish contacts with a new generation of geologists.

Half of all costs went to purchase new special instruments and equipment for geological research and observation in Uzbekistan.

Collaboration and knowledge sharing between Czech and Uzbek geologists dates back to the 1980s. At the first stage, cooperation was focused on studying the movement of mountain slopes, in particular, the observation of deformations and stresses in the body of mountain slopes. Collaboration gradually expanded to the scope of environmental issues, mainly groundwater.

The renewed cooperation also largely focused on the changes caused by the movement of the mountain slopes, however, anthropogenic (human-induced) changes were not missed, especially the deformation of the bodies of dams and protective dams of large rivers.

Research related to the process of changing the earth's surface will be conducted using satellite methods and new ground-based methods, including monitoring the change in the shape of slopes under water.

Of the satellite methods, geologists will pay attention, first of all, to the method of radar interferometry. Its advantage is the ability to evaluate vertical deformations, and with a sufficiently large coverage of the territory, often over an area of 50x50 km. With repeated measurements, the rate of change can also be accurately determined.

In Uzbekistan, two territories have been allocated for the development of this method. The first is the surroundings of the cities of Gazalkent and Charvak, the second territory is the surroundings of Angren.

Territories of interest to specialists identified on satellite imagery were then investigated using ground-based methods. In addition to the classical engineering-geological detours, according to which the Uzbek mudflowers (mudflows and landslides experts) have extensive experience, Czech experts introduced in-situ instrumental methods of observation.

Both radar interferometry and a laser scanner (provided by the Czech side) make it possible to monitor deformations over the entire area of ​​interest. By classical methods of engineering-geological observations, it is still possible to observe the deformation only in certain areas or along the axes of observation wells.

The last method, which was introduced into the complex of research methods of Uzbek specialists, was sonar. In those cases when the slope deformation is located on the river bank, to predict its temporary development, it is necessary to know the nature of its relief under the water surface. Dams, which serve largely as reservoirs for irrigation, do not usually have this problem. The slopes are exposed at a time when all the irrigation water has been used. Where this is not possible, other ways must be sought.

A sonar connected to the GPS system makes it possible to draw an underwater slope profile and then connect it to a common slope profile. Such sections are the basic source data for reliable calculations. The Czech side has experience with this method not only in the Czech Republic, but also abroad (for example, in the Philippines).

This form of cooperation allowed specialists to expand many methods of observing deformations of the earth's surface. Czech geologists, in turn, met with new types of slope deformations that are not found in Central Europe. It is known that extensive movements of mountain ranges present not only significant risks of economic damage, but also possible threats to the health and life of people living in dangerous areas.

Bilateral cooperation between Uzbekistan and China is developing effectively. At present, the China National Oil and Gas Corporation is implementing a number of projects in Uzbekistan for geological exploration in the oil and gas regions of our republic, as well as for the construction of the third string of the Uzbekistan-China gas pipeline, designed to become a stable transit corridor for long-term natural gas supplies to China. Together with the Guangdong Nuclear Energy Corporation, prospective uranium deposits are being developed in the Navoi region with the introduction of separate uranium and vanadium extraction technology.

The Chinese CNK is involved in the deep processing of natural gas at the Mubarek gas chemical complex.

Based on loans from the Government of China (GDBK) and Eximbank of China, a number of priority projects are being implemented in Uzbekistan in industries such as the oil and gas industry.

Actively developing cooperation with British geologists. An agreement on the possibility of conducting joint geological exploration between the specialists of the State Committee on Geology and the London Museum of Natural History was reached during the XXII meeting of the Uzbek-British Council on Trade and Industry, held in London in November 2015. Then the parties expressed considerable interest in the development of joint research and scientific and technical works in the field of geology.

The delegation of British geologists, visited Uzbekistan in 2016 together with their Uzbek counterparts, conducted geological studies of the mining regions of Uzbekistan.

Scientists from the UK supported the idea of ​​creating a geological and structural testing ground on the Tamdytau Mountains in Uzbekistan, which will give researchers around the world an idea of ​​the structure of the South Tien Shan. In addition, in the future in Uzbekistan it is planned to develop geological tourism.

The continuation of this cooperation was the visit of a representative British delegation to Uzbekistan, which included such well-known experts as the Director of the London Museum of Natural History, Professor Richard Herrington, and the Director of the Center for Russian and Central Eurasian Mineral Research (CERCAMS) Reimar Seltmann.

«British scientists supported the idea of creating a geological and structural testing ground on the Tamdytau Mountains. The compact arrangement of ore manifestations, giving an idea of the structure of the South Tien Shan, can make this testing ground demanded by the entire world geological community.

We intend to submit an application to give the surveyed territories the status of state-protected objects of geological heritage, as well as submit materials about them at the Geological Congress in South Africa, «said Bobir Islamov, director of the Mineral Resources Research Institute [17].

In addition, scientists from the two countries developed a mechanism for the exchange of experience in map compilation, geological and geoecological studies, the study of geoparks, exchanged scientific achievements and agreed on advanced training for young specialists through expert field internships.

As a first step in the collaboration, the British side proposed conducting research on samples taken during the tour. Scientists also plan to carry out a broad campaign for the development of geotourism in Uzbekistan. For this, it is planned to issue an illustrated and colorful monograph «Geological Sights of Uzbekistan», which will be presented at the next International Geological Congress.

In connection with the intensification of international geological cooperation, the issue of training personnel of the highest category in the field of geology became an acute issue.

In September 2018 A branch of the National Research Technological University «MISiS» (Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys) in Uzbekistan received the first students at its branch in Almalyk [5].

Tashkent region is one of the fastest growing regions of the country. Here, in the near future, dozens of large projects with the participation of foreign investors who need professional personnel will be implemented.

«The branch trains specialists in the following areas: Metallurgy, Automation and control of technological processes, Mining. Currently, about 400 students study at the branch. Of course, there will be more professions — tunneling engineers, geologists, field development specialists, not to mention a wide range of engineering and technical specialties in mechanical engineering. «

April 17, 2019 The United States and Uzbekistan have taken an important step to expand cooperation in the field of natural resources by signing a Memorandum of Understanding between the US Geological Survey and the State Committee on Geology and Mineral Resources. This memorandum is a continuation of the visit of US Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross to Tashkent in October 2018. The signing ceremony took place during the recent visit of a high-ranking Uzbek delegation to the United States, which included Vice Prime Minister E. Ganiev and Chairman of the GosComGeo B. Islamov.

In the beginning, bilateral cooperation between both parties will be to build capacity in the areas of data, resource assessment and methodology, as well as information regarding the most important mineral resources and their economic viability. Moreover, the American Geological Survey plans to manage, evaluate and methodology data on traditional and alternative energy resources and hopes to use water resources in the near future.

The memorandum was signed after several bilateral high-level meetings both in the USA and in Uzbekistan to determine the topics and scope of bilateral cooperation of mutual interest. Currently, plans are being developed for bilateral scientific exchanges of experience through visits to Tashkent and the United States. These exchange visits, which will include important elements of capacity building and the exchange of data and information, will continue over the next few years and should lead to opportunities for economic growth and expansion of opportunities for Uzbekistan [18].

Conclusion

Uzbekistan has joined the CIS agreement on cooperation in the study, exploration and use of mineral resources. This is stated in the press service of GosComGeo.

In the city of Nur-Sultan, on Wednesday, the next session of the CIS intergovernmental council on exploration, use and protection of the subsoil began.

«In connection with the interest of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the work of the intergovernmental council and with its joining the agreement on cooperation in the field of study, exploration and use of mineral resources, a delegation from Uzbekistan, which includes representatives of GosComGeo, will participate in this meeting», Telegram-channel department informed.

Uzbekistan’s entry into the intergovernmental council will contribute to «expanding international cooperation in the field of geological exploration of mineral resources, studying and joint development of border regions, introducing new methodological approaches into domestic practice of exploration, as the basis for studying mineral resources as the basis of the study of mineral resources and their development is identical in the CIS countries», added GosComGeo.

It should be noted, summing up, that at present it is characterized by increasing progressive processes in the field of international cooperation of Uzbek geologists with foreign colleagues.

References:

  1. Visit of Shavkat Mirziyoyev to Japan: results of three days. //www.kommersant.uz|2019|19|12.
  2. People's Daily. Highway baths (Edition for foreign readers). 2004, May 13. — C.2.
  3. Chinese entrepreneurs are investing in the extraction of tungsten and copper in the Samarkand region. //www.kommersant.uz|2018|22|06.
  4. Personal archive of academician I.Kh. Khamrabaev. 1992–1998 — Folder 8.l.24–30.
  5. MISiS. Branch in the city of Almalyk. Official site. // www.misis.uz.
  6. On the way to further strengthen the strategic partnership https://www.press-service.uz/ru/news/5199/ 25.10.2015.
  7. The Uzbek-Japanese business forum was held // https://www.invest.gov.uz|2019|31|07.
  8. Sun Lijie... — P.30.
  9. Japan and Uzbekistan signed a memorandum on the development of uranium deposits — Bigpower News https://www.bigpowernews.ru|news|document28250.phtml 8 февраля 2011, 09:39.
  10. Khodzhaev A. Chinese factor in Central Asia. — T.: Fan, 2007.-- P.125
  11. www.ingeo.uz/news_ru.html
  12. www.lex.uz/paqes/GetAct.aspx 9132.
  13. www.pronedra.ru/qas|2012|12|19
  14. https://www.gazeta./uz|2015|10|25|agreements/
  15. www.goskomgeo.uz. 25.10.2015.
  16. www.gazeta.uz 10.10.2015.
  17. www.goskomgeo.uz.
  18. www.uz.usembassy.gov/ru/united-states-geologial-survey-signs-mou-with-uzdekistan-ru.//2019/20/04/.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): USA, PRC, XUAR, ITOCHU, NMMC, CIS, LLC, CNK, JBIC, JOGMES.


Ключевые слова

experience, advanced training, exploration, geology, geophysics, scientific exchange, internship, joint project

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