This article analyzes and provides methods for solving problems associated with resource conservation during design. And also in the study, we attach great importance to the economic aspect of structures.
Keywords: structures, loads, size, methods, efficiency, strength, material, resistances, methods, problem.
В этой статье проводится анализ а также выдаются методы решения проблем связанные с ресурсосбережения во время проектирования. А также при изучении мы придаем большое значение экономического аспекта конструкций.
Ключевые слова: конструкции, нагрузки, размера, методы, эффективность, прочность, материал, сопротивлениям, методами, проблемой.
In our time period is critical there is a question of resource when designing different systems (in the area of construction, engineering, aircraft construction, and so on. D.). This article is devoted to a review of various methods in the field of modernization of structures. Reducing loads or increasing the volume of elements.
These explicit methods, of course, are considered the most elementary and also do not encourage discussion. Only need to select, then that while it is not a pure increase productivity in mind a kind of fatigue stability. Variations of this method are considered to be a periodic change of the responding elements, but also sometimes mechanical processing of their planes in order to pull out the damaged material. A sample of the final method is considered to drill large holes for bolts fitting the latest bolts. Redesigning. Absolutely no doubt, that that improvement is possible to achieve by the basic change of the system, especially with the point of view of extracting effective overload and silhouettes rigidity of the entire system or mechanism. The material. In addition to That, the protection of a plane with corrosive influences, especially the surfaces of simple alloys, can be useful. Surface compressive forces. Destruction in the bulk of the situation starts from the plane, but not inside. Thus The image as well as fatigue strength of increases with the presence of a mediocre compressive force, in such a case it is expedient to deliberately generate such force on the surface of the material used, and which replace tensile force — inside it. The improvement is based on the possibility of the material to avoid each noncompliance in residual stresses in the period of time work. Stresses are usually formed by graceful destruction of the material plane. It may, executed by various methods, but directly:
a) blasting obrabatyvaniya, liquid honing, burnishing, polishing in the drum and so on. d.
b) Mr. auglerozhivaniem or nitriding. These methods form a compressive force, due to absorption of the carbon atoms or nitrogen superficial layers, but does not due to the plastic destruction of the material used. In addition to this, the fatigue strength of the material used significantly increased in consequence of increasing hardness plane.
c) heat treatment. Each procedure, which, in the final analysis, forms an active cooling of the surface, generates shallow forces due to further compression of the internal fraction of the used material. Samples can be passionate as inductive hardening. But the dangerous areas of the complicated element may also not acquire the data of the necessary stresses;
d) provisional also periodic overload. Using also the elimination of preliminary tensile overload generates residual compressive stresses in dangerous places.
These efforts are considered one-sided and also lead to improved fatigue strength only in this case, if overload is also a mediocre secondary alternating load applied in 1 also in the same flow. In comparison with other methods of reducing information, forces are formed only in sections with a force gradient, as well as, for example, in grooves. A more popular example of the use of this principle is the tumbling of leaf — shaped springs, however, there are also numerous other probable methods. Secondary addition of tensile overloads the period from the period is considered especially necessary. In practice destruction appear significantly greater, than about the same say, typical labs' checks, such manner as well as in practice, requirement transmission congestion also the contact surfaces are considered less suitable. A variety of methods, reducing or eliminating wear of the alloy, are summarized. Pre- loaded with also use statically indistinct structure. Various successful method of increasing the fatigue strength, that require a large amount of ingenuity with side constructor is considered a method of preliminary loading. This method consists in using automatic device for the purpose additions also savings overload in a hazardous area element. In reality it formed statically indeterminate system with 2 elements, through which passes the work Durability is increased either by reducing the alternating voltage, or by forming a mediocre compressive stress in dangerous constituting thus, to ak is told greater. In this case directly bolt is considered decisive pliable component, and items, combined together, — a solid component. Acceptable, more popular model is considered to be pre- loaded with at reducing trunks gun machine, by putting the band looks to or when using the pre- enlarged wire.
Starting from the previously claimed, allowed to make an appropriate conclusion, present advice according to the load distribution and the main design: a) lower part is considered to be the most simple; b) elementary structures must be planned with a minimum number of elements; c) instead of to introduce a separate component for the purpose of any concentrated overload, the components necessary to place a similar manner, in order to (re) carry a number of varieties overload; d) overloads have all chances to be most effectively perceived by components that function in tension or contraction, rather than components that function in bending or twisting; d) association of increased weight are also required to be applied only in case of need;
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