The essence of the content in terms and terminology
Рихсиева, Л. А. The essence of the content in terms and terminology / Л. А. Рихсиева. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 24 (314). — С. 465-467. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/314/71545/ (дата обращения: 03.08.2021).
As we need to study narrow specialized areas in one's professional activity, we have to clarify the field of terminology, the science which studies terms. In 1967, at the second World Union Conference on Aspects of Terminology, V. P. Petushkov suggested that the concept of «terminology» be referred to as a branch of science. Terminology is a complex scientific science that is not related to linguistics but it is related to logic, mathematics, psychology, as well as a specific of certain field. One of the main issues of this science is the definition of the «term» . Today there are about three thousand definitions of the “term” and single generally accepted definition is still under discussion, still no consensus on the issue. V. M. Leichik claims that the existence of many approaches to defining the concept of terminology is due to the fact that terminology as a science is at an early stage of development. According to him, each science or field is trying to highlight the important features of the terms within its scope . There is no universal definition of the term, because the term is a complex phenomenon, its features are manifested in problematic situations. When we define the term, it is worth noting that it depends on two factors: 1) on what basis the term is studied (based on the fact that it is considered and studied in terms of different theories given by all linguists); 2) as well as to which field this lexical unit belongs (science, medicine, jurisprudence, sports, etc.). G. O. Vinokur was one of the first to raise attention to the issue on the linguistic aspect of the term and organization of terminology. According to him, when a word becomes a term, it loses its connotative meaning and the term is included in the system of linguistic signs to distinguish between science, technology, medicine and other fields and the phenomena in them.
The term (Latin terminus “border”) is a word or phrase adopted in a particular professional field and used in special contexts. Terminology (as a set of terms) forms an autonomous branch in any language that is closely related to professional activity. Terms are special words used to accurately express the names of concepts and objects in a particular field. Terms in each field of science, technology, and industry form their own terminological systems that are defined by the conceptual connections of their professional activities using linguistic tools. In the process of the development of society the vocabulary of the language is constantly changing, it is updated and enriched. Each innovation observed in different fields leads to the emergence of lexical units that serve to form the language in accordance with this innovation, defining new concepts which related to development. This process manifests itself in different periods and in different parts of the globe and it has an international character. All changes and updates that have taken place in the development of society, science and technology in all periods of history are reflected in the terminological section of the dictionary.
Terminology is a set of terms in a particular science or field, as well as a system of terms about their formation, composition, and function. The subject of general terminology theory includes the study of the formation and use of specific words, the transfer of knowledge gained by mankind through them, the improvement of existing terminological systems, the search for new terms and optimal ways to create their systems, the manifestation of universal features .
The fact that the vocabulary of each literary language includes to some extent the terminological lexicon, which represents specific concept and the system of Uzbek terminology is no exception. In contrast to the general words, the terms which are always aimed at the expression of specific concepts have been formed and improved in the context of the stages of formation and development of the Uzbek literary language. Beginning in the middle of the 19th century, Uzbek terminology entered a stage of development under the influence of assimilations from Western European languages through Russian. The contribution of Russian-international terms, as well as pure Uzbek lexical units, in the formation of the system of field terminology was significant. This aspect is especially evident in the terminological system specific to the sciences. The Uzbek terminology of the independence period is experiencing a process of comprehensive improvement in the century of globalization and Internet. In recent years Uzbek terminology with foreign lexical units and their meaning such as: академик лицей, коллеж, магистр, магистратура, бакалавр, тендер, преференция, инвестиция, лицензия, дилер, мегаполис, экология, эксперт, демпинг, инфляция, клиринг, супермаркет, мини-маркет, гипер-маркет, чат, пайнет, электорат, наркобизнес, миллий авиакомпания enriched by completely new concepts .
It is known that in modern Uzbek terminology, in addition to the use of many terms in Russian and English, Uzbek terms are assimilated by other languages. The dual nature of the phenomenon of word acquisition has already been confirmed in linguistics. In 1999 with the initiative of the first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, the World Uzbek Wrestling Championship was held. Later this type of sport became popular and as a result of its emergence on the world stage and terms such as кураш, ёнбош, чала, ҳалол, ғирром became part of international sports terminology. Typically, sphere specialists define terms based on their professional activities, which do not fully define the terms, but reflect their important features. For example, according to G. O. Vinokur's definition: «Every word can be used as a term… a term is not a special word, but only a word in a special function that performs functions such as naming a particular concept, topic, or event». V. V. Vinogradov writes, “Every word has a nominative or definitive function, that is, if a word is expressed in an intelligible meaning known to all, then it is used as a simple word in the language. If the word is given a logical definition, then it is used as a scientific term.
The lexical structure of any language consists of a layer of words with independent meanings and auxiliary words, special lexemes specific to the scientific field, as well as special lexemes related to specific terminological systems. The terminology of general lexicon has been used for many years, and this phenomenon demonstrates the two-way relationship between language and terminology. This process is also evident in the integral connections between general literary vocabulary and terminological vocabulary. There are two types of transitions: 1. The transition of common words to the terminological lexical system: илдиз («корень»), сув («вода»), шамол («ветер»), денгиз («море»), дарё («река»), ой («луна»), қуёш («солнце»), буғдой («пшеница»), тол («ива»), узум («виноград»), шимол («север»), жануб («юг»), ер («земля»), айғир («жеребец»), балиқ («рыба») and etc. It is a very comprehensive layer of vocabulary, thematically integrated into society, man, nature, animals and plants. The mentioned words belong to a wide general field and, in turn, to a narrow special field. 2. Another part of the general lexicon becomes a term as a result of a meaningful change. As a rule, words derived from a common literary language into a terminological system are adapted to express a particular scientific concept, gaining the status of a scientific term.
For example, in the system of technical terminology of the Uzbek language кўз, оёқ, қадам, бармоқ, тирсак, тизза, қўлтиқ, тўсиқ, қобирға, оғиз, тирноқ, қулоқ, пичоқ, қути, тароқ, қозон, қошиқ, бармоқ, панжа, мушт are used to denote details, mechanisms, machine parts and various tools. In scientific texts these words lose their primary (denotative) meaning and become a single scientific term.
According to B. N. Golovin and R.Yu. Kobrin in the 1960s a system of standardization of scientific and technical terms was developed, within which the following requirements for terms were developed: 1) unambiguous; 2) systemic; 3) derivative; 4) short; 5) linguistically correct application; 6) if possible, not to be replaced by terms in other languages; 7) implementation . In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries under the influence of the achievements of modern linguistics and in connection with the need for an information society, a new cognitive approach to terminological units was developed. According to S. V. Grinev, a cognitive approach in terminology is important not only for studying the developmental characteristics of scientific knowledge but also for studying the development of human culture and civilization in general. Some linguists claim that the term should be monosemantic which has only one meaning.
So, the development of a new cognitive approach to terminological units, the term has shifted from a definition of only one to multiple meanings. Indeed, some of the requirements for the term are optional and contradictory. In general, the requirements for terms and terminology take into account only the superficial features that apply to them.
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