The article analyzes the approaches to the formation of the concept of “pedagogical innovation”. On the basis of the philosophical definition of innovation, the definition of pedagogical innovation is given, taking into account the goals and objectives of innovative activity in the vocational education system. The essence and content of the concept of “innovative culture” in the context of the cultural universe are also examined. Educational priorities and conceptual provisions are defined, the implementation of which will ensure the formation of the necessary level of innovative culture of subjects of vocational education.
Key words: pedagogical innovation, innovative culture, innovation process, educational innovation, innovation, professional education.
The scale and pace of transformation of socio-economic relations in the world of the XXI century are such that further progress in society is possible only on the basis of knowledge. A tendency toward the shift of the main sources of creating national prosperity from the use of physical, ineffective labor and natural resources to the maximum use of high technology and innovation is becoming more pronounced in the world. Innovative processes do not change the types of activities, but their technological ability to use as a direct productive force that distinguishes a person from other biological creatures — the ability to generate new knowledge. These changes mark the transition from a “material” to an “intellectual” knowledge economy.
Recently, the Uzbek education system has been undergoing certain changes, and this, of course, requires understanding of the branch of pedagogical knowledge, namely in pedagogical innovation, which is designed to explain and analyze the emergence of innovations, helping them to become part of the current system. However, there is still no unambiguous approach to the definition of the term “innovation”. Scientists of various fields of knowledge interpret it differently. In order to come to a unified definition, it is necessary to study existing ones, structure them and choose among them the most successful and suitable for such a field of knowledge as pedagogy.
The term “innovation” goes back to the Latin “inovatio”, which in translation into Russian means “innovation, innovation”. The Australian eco-economist Joseph Schumpeter was the first to apply this concept. He considered this concept mainly in relation to the economy and equated it to a new look at some well-known process, economic discovery, or the successful application of a new invention in economics and other spheres of human activity. Similar concepts to it: “novation” — any new phenomenon that is only likely to be realized; «Innovation», that is, progressively new in the creative activity of man. Whether it is possible to combine all of them together with innovation under the name “innovation” remains not completely clear. The term seems understandable, but does not lend itself to full understanding in accessible forms for perception. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out theoretical research in this area.
The term “innovation” was preceded by the centuries-old evolution of the term “development”, which arose in the depths of the philosophical teachings of Aristotle, and then in classical Latin literature. However, it was used in its usual everyday sense: “unraveling opinions” (Aristotle); «Opening of the book» (Cicero). Only in N. Kuzansky (1401–1464) does this concept acquire a philosophical content: a line is an evolutio of a point. G. V. Leibnitz (1646–1716) translated Latin terms into French as “de-veloppent” and “enveloppement”. J. Breme (1575–1624) uses the word “aus-wicklung”, and in German philosophy the term “entwicklung” is used in the sense of the internal development of body parts. The given term “innovation” was also actively mentioned in numerous poetic and political works of one of the most renowned Scottish writers who lived in the 18th century, Robert Burns. He applied the term “innovations” and “political innovations” in order to criticize the policy of British empire toward their freedom loving inlands such like Scotland and Ireland and try to affect on the toughest political situation in the region at that particular period of time .
The term “innovation” entered the science of the 19th century through anthropology and ethnography, where it was used to study the processes of changes in culture. In the XX century, the term “innovation” as an economic category was introduced into the scientific circulation by J. A. Schumpeter. His work laid the foundation for the formation of a new field of knowledge — innovation — the science of transforming new types and methods of human activity into socio-cultural norms and models. In the 30s of the last century, in the works of A. Adams, A. Maslow, F. Taylor and other innovations were interpreted as “innovation, the introduction of new forms of organization and management”.
In the works of the national scientists, innovations are considered as cultural phenomena that did not exist at the previous stages of its development, but which appeared at this stage and socialized.
Thus, the content of the innovation can be presented as a complex process of creating, disseminating and using a new practical means (innovation) to satisfy human needs that change during the development of socio-cultural systems. Further, for quite a long time, the term was used precisely in the economic sphere, but over time it penetrated into all existing branches of knowledge, namely culture, science, production and education, firmly and confidently entrenched in them. Based on this, we can conclude that innovation has entered the process of becoming as part of all existing disciplines, and this concept has become interdisciplinary.
The beginning of discussions about innovations in the educational system of Uzbekistan is considered to be the 90s of the twentieth century. During this period, there is an acute need for innovation in pedagogy. A branch of pedagogy appears, called “pedagogical innovatics”, which considers human education in the context of improving his level of knowledge. The main task of innovation here is the analysis of changes in the field of education.
A large number of scientists addressed the problem of defining the concept of «innovation». However, a unified understanding did not work out. The terminological uncertainty of this concept forces us again and again to search for the right definition.
An indisputable fact is that for a competent application in practice, there must be a competent, practically justified concept of “innovation”, which would reveal their true essence. Consequently, we can assume that the formation of our own definition of the concept of “innovation”, based on the point of view of scientists and researchers, will be important, contribute to the emergence of a single definition of this concept.
Having studied the scientific literature on this issue, we can say that the concept of «innovation» has several interpretations. If in the economic sphere difficulties arise with the internal content of a concept, with what we call innovation: a process, a result or their combination, then in education the term has an ambiguous interpretation due to a rather large number of synonyms. That is why the question arises of the classification of existing definitions. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups.
In the first group we will include definitions of the term “innovation” of those scientists who consider it to be equal to the concepts of “innovation” or “innovation”, on the basis of the idea that the very process of introducing, applying innovations, their successful use in the education system can be called innovations.
“Pedagogical Dictionary” offers the following definition: “Pedagogical innovation is a deliberate change that introduces stable elements (innovations) into the educational environment that improve the characteristics of individual parts, components and the educational system as a whole” [1, with. 42]. This point of view is supported by such scientific researchers and pedagogues as V. A. Slastenin, V. S. Lazarev and B. P. Martirosyan, who consider innovation in their works as the process of introducing new (innovations) into the education system, thereby improving the content, methods, and forms of joint activity of the teacher and student.
This group should also include the point of view of N. R. Yusufbekova, who believes that “innovation should be considered the processes of creating innovations, their understanding by the pedagogical community and the use of training and education in practice” [2, p. 10].
Therefore, we can assume that for scientists united here in the first group, pedagogical innovations are inseparable from the concept of a process. With this interpretation of the concept, innovation and innovation come closer in meaning.
The second group should include the definitions of those scientists who share the concepts of “innovation” and “innovation”, saying that innovation is the result of the introduction of innovation. And the innovation is an ordinary one-time improvement of the system. In other words, innovation is made up of innovations.
So, R. A. Fathundinov noted the difference between the concepts of innovation and innovation, believing innovation «framed by the results of research, development or experiments that increase the efficiency of work» [3, p.174]. Innovation, in his opinion, can be called the final result from the introduction of innovations aimed at changing the object that the update process is aimed at.
According to the scientist A. I. Prigogine, these concepts can also not be considered identical. The author says that innovation is only the subject of innovation, innovation and innovation have completely different life cycles. While innovation ultimately becomes obsolete, innovation eventually turns into a stable, constantly and stably functioning object (the so-called “routine process”) [4, p.270–275].
In addition, innovation should be distinguished from minor changes that do not lead to a change in quality, introducing only a few amendments to the process. Pedagogical innovations can be considered pedagogical methods, means of form, meaningful programs aimed either at combining new and well-known elements, or at modifying existing programs, or at introducing fundamentally new radical ideas.
Based on all of the above, we can give this definition of this term in the interpretation of the representatives of the second group that we highlighted: “Innovation is the result of applying innovations that affects the current system, changes it and increases work efficiency, allowing you to get what’s possible for this moment of maximum.”
In our opinion, the definition of innovation as the final result of innovation most fully and accurately expresses the essence of this concept. We call innovation the alleged change, the useful application of which has not yet been proved. Innovations, in turn, are changes that have already influenced existing systems, have had a great impact and have become stronger in the field of science.
When we analyze pedagogical innovations and their considerable effect to educational process at all possible educational structures: schools, colleges, various higher educational institutions, it’s necessary to note the teachers’ preparedness to the given pedagogical innovations and in common the reforms of educational system. Based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, we define the psychological readiness for innovative activity as a complex holistic process of the personality, characterized by the teacher’s confidence in his abilities, the ability to mobilize his personal and professional resources in the situation of innovative activity emotional uplift, activity in achieving set goals and objectives. In the presented pedagogical research, the structure of readiness for innovative activity, its technological and personal sides are systematically integrated, which ensures the necessary integrity of the image of a teacher-innovator. The level of development of personality structures directly or indirectly determines the quality of the operational components of innovative activity, since it is the teacher’s attitude to innovations, awareness of their importance that determines the success of the implementation of innovations in the practice of work of general educational institutions [6, p. 424–427].
Pedagogical innovations are aimed at achieving the greatest result of the educational process, obtaining the best effect of the joint work of teachers and students. Introducing something new in the education system, the state expects a positive effect that is beneficial at all levels of education . An important feature of innovation in the vocational education system is that the subjects of the innovation process are the student and teacher. If this is not taken into account, then all pedagogical innovation falls out of everything actually educational, related to the student and the teacher himself, all the humanistic, humanitarian component of innovative activity, relating, in particular, to the formation of innovative thinking and innovative culture as student and teacher.
The second distinctive feature of pedagogical innovation is the need for a systematic coverage of the largest possible number of pedagogical problems related to vocational education. Disparate local innovations lose their meaning and have no serious prospects if there is no coordination, interdependence and support from the teaching staff.
Speaking of pedagogical innovations, we can’t also ignore the historical and conceptual backgrounds of its formation. In carrying out the logical characterization of a concept, it is fundamentally important to take into account in what respect the object is thought. If this is not taken into account, then a violation of the law of identity and a sophisticated confusion of thought are possible, in which we will vaguely think about different things, using the same term [7, p. 414–419].
The condition that determines the effectiveness of pedagogical innovation is the research activities of teachers who, solving the problems of private methodology, ask more general questions and begin to rethink the existing didactic principles of teaching. However, the activities of the innovative teacher in the context of traditional teaching may be unacceptable, and the teacher himself is perceived in the team as a kind of foreign person.
Therefore, the innovative educational process deployed in the teaching team requires active participation in the research of each teacher, which will contribute to the formation of an innovative culture of the entire team.
A number of works examined approaches to the formation of the concept of “educational pedagogical innovation”. A detailed analysis of approaches to the formation of the concept of “educational innovation”, performed in the work, led the author of this work to conclude that, “despite the numerous studies of scientists and the growing interest in this problem, a recognized interpretation the concept of «educational innovation» is still not found in pedagogical literature or in the most innovative educational environment. " Indeed, the definitions of “educational (pedagogical) innovation” available in a number of works in terms of content and meaning only confirm the lack of a unified view among researchers on this fundamentally important definition within the framework of a rapidly developing discipline — pedagogical innovation:
“Pedagogical innovation is an educational activity associated with a process of becoming an individual other than in mass practice and in cultural tradition... with a different look and approach to the educational process”; pedagogical innovation is “such a content of possible changes in pedagogical reality that leads (when mastering the innovations by the pedagogical community and introducing them) to a previously unknown state that has not previously been encountered in this form in the history of education, theory and practice of training and education ”; “innovative activity is a purposeful transformation of the practice of educational activity through the creation, dissemination and development of new educational systems or some of their components”. T. M. Kovaleva considers it possible (“by virtue of not too“ rigid ”, but at the same time of a“ vague ”characteristic”) to adopt the definition of educational innovation formulated in the work of M. M. Potashnik, in which the concept of developmental innovation is understood as “a deliberate change introducing new elements into the implementation environment that cause the transition of the system from one state to another”. According to T. M. Kovaleva, “the meaningful introduction of new elements, which allows us to qualitatively change the educational situation itself, and gives us the opportunity to characterize this action as innovation”.
Summing up all of the above, we can say that the second point of view, in our opinion, is the most successful. Considering innovation as a result of the application of innovations, we draw a clear distinction between these terms, clearly limiting them from each other. Of course, the current state of society and the existing education system need to introduce innovations that can transform and positively affect existing canons, have a positive impact on the educational process and increase the effectiveness of the joint work of the teacher and students, and help achieve maximum effectiveness in the study of the educational program.
- Pedagogical dictionary, Zagvyazinsky V. I., Zakirova A. F., Strokova T. A., 2008. p. 352.
- Yusufbekova, N. R. Pedagogical innovation: emergence and formation / N. R. Yusufbekova // Bulletin of the Moscow City Pedagogical University. 2010.4 (14) 2010. p. 8–17.
- Fathutdinov R. A. Innovation management. Textbook, 4th ed. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2003.p. 400:
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- Balashova E. S., Bogacheva A. V., Voronkova A. A., Maltseva S. M. To the question of the formation of objective results of the educational activities of students of humanities specialties in the context of cross-cultural communication // Karelian scientific journal. 2018.Vol. 7. No. 1 (22). p. 12–15.
- Kurbanov Ihtiyor Hikmatovich Theoretical aspects of studying the psychological preparedness of teachers to innovative activity // International Scientific Journal Theoretical & Applied Science. 2020. № 04(84). p. 424–427.
- Sadullaev D. B. (2020). Historical reality concepts. ISJ Theoretical & Applied Science, 04 (84), p. 414- 419.
- Ruzieva M. K. The role of Robert Burns's works in the literature of the enlightenment period // International Engineering journal for research & development // Vol. 5 Issue 3, April 2020.