Diplomatic Terms Related to the Structure of the State in English and Turkmen Languages | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Автор:

Рубрика: Педагогика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №24 (314) июнь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 09.06.2020

Статья просмотрена: 5 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Ашырнепесов, В. А. Diplomatic Terms Related to the Structure of the State in English and Turkmen Languages / В. А. Ашырнепесов. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 24 (314). — С. 395-397. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/314/71086/ (дата обращения: 07.07.2020).



The research aims to compare similarities and differences of diplomatic terminology between Turkmen and English languages by analyzing through the lexical structure. Lexical structure of diplomatic terminology is learned by making a thematic group of diplomatic terminology.

Keywords: diplomatic terminology, thematic group, state, lexical structure.

The large-scale and significant role of diplomatic terms in the formation of a large number of words related to the diplomatic system in the Turkmen language. It would not be wrong to say that diplomacy encompasses all systems. Examples of this are systemic terms such as Energy Diplomacy, Cultural Diplomacy, Economic Diplomacy, Naval Diplomacy, and even Ecological Diplomacy, which are of great importance today. While diplomatic terms can be divided into several areas and groups outside, they can also be broadly divided into groups. For a more in-depth analysis of diplomatic terms, they were studied in thematic groups. This approach is supported by K. G. Menges by definition, namely, that “Analyzing the lexicon into groups is the most important area for studying its past and present” [1, 12]. We can show the words related to this system in the following order:

  1. Terms related to the structure of the state;
  2. Terms related to the name of international government documents;
  3. Terms related to diplomatic missions and degrees;
  4. In connection with the name of the institutions included in the system of diplomatic service terms;
  5. Terms related to official meetings;
  6. Commemorative diplomatic terms;
  7. Terms made up of numbers.

Diplomatic terms were sought to be divided into seven groups. Here each section is divided into different branches and contains a number of diplomatic terms. In this research only the first group is defined.

  1. Introduction

Lexical structure of diplomatic terminology is learned by making a thematic groups of diplomatic terminology. The first group is defined as the diplomatic terms related to state structure. The peoples' quest for independence dates back to the time of the first states. The ability, and protection from external pressures were the main issues of every state and remain so. Throughout the long history of diplomacy, special terms have been coined to define independence: sovereignty, autonomy, territorial independence, and so on.

The state is an organization that exercises a unified political power throughout the country, has a subordinate population, has a special system of governance and coercion, adopts rules for compulsory implementation by all, and has full autonomy, and exercises a unified political power in society [2, 58]. In the explanatory dictionary of the Turkmen language, the state is given by the word (political) [3, 250]. The word means «power”, «state”, «nation” in the Russian-English diplomatic dictionary. This vocabulary is one of the most effective terms in the vocabulary of diplomatic lexicons of the Turkmen and English languages. For example, the leading state (esasy (öňdebaryjy) döwlet) is the leading power, Beýik döwletler — Great Powers, söweşýän döwletler — belligerent power, dostlukly döwletler — friendly powers, Günbatar döwletler — Western powers, jedelleşýän / çaknyşykly döwletler — conflicting states, kiçi döwlet — small nation, güýçli/öňe çykýan döwlet — to emerge as/to become a world power, deňze çykalgasy bolan döwletler– maritme / sea / naval / power / nation, senagat taýdan ösen döwlet — mighty industrial power, bitarap döwlet — neutral power / state, Hemişelik Bitarap döwlet (Türkmenistan döwletiniň mysalynda) — Permanently Neutral state (in the example of Turkmenistan), üçünji gaýry ýurt — third power, ylalaşyga goşulýan döwletler — signatory powers to a treaty [4, 128]. All of these words have the meaning of a state word and are included in the list of diplomatic terms belonging to this group. In his book, the diplomat Dr. A. Rahmanov mentions and explains the diplomatic terms in his particular book as «kabul edýän döwlet — host state, bolunýan döwlet — host state, akkreditleýän döwlet — accrediting state, guramaçy döwlet — organizing state, çagyrýan döwlet — inviting state”, which are made up of the word state, among the diplomatic terms [5, 362]. The term «host state” as used herein was also used in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 [6]. In fact, the term «state” was originally understood to mean «victory, power, and the transfer of power into the hands of another”. These notions then changed and became a concept of sustainable governance, depending on the authorities [7, 194]. Today, this concept is defined as a political unit created by people living in a country on the basis of the right to independence and freedom [8, 16]. However, modern legal science, when defining the notion of the state, is not based on personal views, but rather on the general conditions inherent in the material world [2, 58]. The current concept of «state» dates to the 16th century and the concept of «nation, state” to emerge in the 19th century. That is to say, in these centuries the notion of the state was acquired in relation to the people and the nation, but then as a result of the ideological character of the socioeconomic order in the twentieth century, it began to be understood in relation to the ideologies of individuals like the fascist, capitalist, communist state. There are differing views on the notion of the state, which are also various conflicting concepts, such as the acceptance of miracles by some scholars, the view by some as private power, or the political unification of a nation within a certain boundary. The fact that these ideas differ from each other shows that the notion of a state is very important [7, 195].

  1. Methods

This research work uses methods such as comparative, contrastive, diplomatic terms, analysis of the use of terms in official language and colloquial language, and their translation, sociolinguistics research, and the determination of the mutual and cultural relations of languages.

  1. Results

In the dictionary section of Andalib's «Leyli-Mejnun” epic, lexical units such as “Döwlet”, “Döwletment” are considered, which are 1. Döwletli, baý, gurply (rich, wealthy, strong). 2. Explanations such as bagtly (fortunate), bagtyýar (delighted) have been given [11, 154]. As can be seen from these explanations, the term state is not only found in the diplomatic terms of the Turkmen language, but also has an interdisciplinary nature that can be included in all political and social terms.

The term “state” in the Turkmen language forms a semantically unique synonymy with lexical units such as the respublika — republic and the ýurt — country. It is also ingrained in the language of our classical literature with its metaphorical meanings such as rysgal — sustenance, döwlet — state, bereket — blessing, bagt — happiness, güýç — power. An example of this is Magtymguly Pyragy:

The dervishes rejoice,

He needs a state in his hands... [12, 188]

When the truth comes to us,

If the weeping eyes play and laugh,

If the poor appreciate the country,

He emigrated in his heart [12, 391] and so on. it is possible to show great lines.

The notion of a state was explained in detail because it describes the name of this group. The terms belonging to this group are sought to be subdivided into several sections for a better understanding.

According to the form of public administration:respublika häkimiýeti — republican government, Parlament häkimiýeti — Parliamentary government, (Latyn Amerikasy döwletlerinde) banan respublikasy — banana republic (Latyn Amerikasyndaky kiçi döwletleriň äsgermezlik bilen atlandyrlyşy), doganlyk respublika — fraternal / sister republic, buržuwa — demokratik respublikasy — bourgeois-democratic republic, demokratik respublika — democratic republic, milli respublika — national republic, Rusiýa Sowet Federatiw Sosialistik Respublikasy — Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, federatiw / federal respublika — federative / federal republic, prezident dolandyryşly respublika — republic with the presidential form of government [4, 565].

According to the constitutional legal status: hukuk döwleti — law-governed state, milli döwlet — national state, dünýewi döwlet — secular state, Bitarap döwlet — neutral state;

Depending on the size of the state: kiçi döwlet –small nation, güýçli döwlet world power, esasy (öňdebaryjy) döwlet — the leading power, Beýik döwletler — Great Powers;

—According to the development of the state: ösen döwlet — developed country, ösüp barýan döwlet — developing country;

Depending on the geographical location of the state: goňşy döwlet / ler / ýurtlar – neighbouring country / ies, ýewropa döwletleri / ýurtlary — European countries, Gündogar ýurtlary — Eastern Counties, daşary ýurt döwleti — foreign country, Orta Aziýa ýurtlary — Middle East Countries, Ýakyn we Orta Gündogar ýurtlary — Near East and Middle East countries, ýakyndaky ýurtlar — near countries, Merkezi Aziýa döwletleri — Central Asian countries, deňze çykalgasy bolan döwletler– maritime / sea / naval / power / nation;

Named after the period of the economic crisis: jedelleşýän/ çaknyşykly döwletler — conflicting states, garaşly ýurt — dependent country, goragly ýurt — buffer state, hüjüm edýän ýurt — aggressor state, birleşen ýurtlar — allies;

According to the official names of the states: Beýik Britaniýa — Great Britain, ABŞ — the USA, Rusiýa Federasiýasy — Russian Federation, Eýran Yslam Respublikasy — Islamic Republic of Iran;

State symbols: Döwlet nyşany — State / National Emblem, Döwlet senasy — National anthem, Döwlet baýdagy — National flag, Döwlet kasamy — National oath;

According to diplomatic relations and visits: kabul edýän döwlet — receiving state, iberýän döwlet — sending state, akreditleýän döwlet — accrediting state, ylalaşyga goşulýan döwletler — signatory powers to a treaty;

According to the structure of the state: Unitar döwlet — Unitary state, Federasiýa — federation, Konfederasiýa — Confederation, Awtonomiýa — Autonomy / home rule, Özygtyýarlyk — Sovereignty, Garaşsyzlyk — Independence;

  1. Conclusion

To analyze the diplomatic terms in detail, the work identified the need to study them in thematic groups. When the terms were studied divided into thematic groups, it was learned that the origins of each term allow us to provide more detailed information about the features of different uses in some languages. The diplomatic terms were divided into thematic groups such as state structure, names of international state documents, names of institutions included in the system of diplomatic service, diplomatic missions and ranks, official meetings, commemorative, diplomatic terms with the participation of numbers, and the features of their occurrence were analyzed.

References:

  1. Менгес К. Г. Восточные элементы в “Слове о полку Игореве”. — Москва: Наука, 1979. — 12 с.
  2. Nuryýew Ý., Ataýew S., Çaryýew A. Döwletiň we hukugyň nazaryýeti. — Aşgabat: Türkmen döwlet neşirýat gullugy, 2011.
  3. Türkmen diliniň sözlügi. — A.: Türkmenistan SSSR Ylymlar akademiýasynyň neşirýaty, 1962.
  4. Журавченко К. В. Русско–Английский дипломатический словарь, Москва, 2006.
  5. Rahmanow A. Diplomatik gullugynyň esaslary. — Aşgabat, 2012.
  6. Diplomatik gatnaşyklary baradaky Wena Konwensiýasy. — Wena, 1961.
  7. Ömer M. “Islam Düsünce Tarihinde Devlet Anlayışı: Maverdi ve Nizamülmülk Örnegi”.//Din bilimleri Akademik Araştırma Dergisi, Sayı: 3, 2005.
  8. Tugral O. “Kutadgu Bilig ve Siyasetname’de Devlet Anlayışı”. // Yüksek lisans tez. — Nigde, 2008. — 16 s.
  9. Nuryýew Ý., Ataýew S., Çaryýew A. Döwletiň we hukugyň nazaryýeti. — Aşgabat: Türkmen döwlet neşirýat gullugy, 2011.
  10. Ömer M. “Islam Düsünce Tarihinde Devlet Anlayışı: Maverdi ve Nizamülmülk Örnegi”.//Din bilimleri Akademik Araştırma Dergisi, Sayı: 3, 2005.
  11. Andalyp. Leýli — Mejnun. — A: 2011. — 154 s.
  12. Magtymguly. — Aşgabat: Türkmen döwlet neşirýaty, 1977.
Основные термины (генерируются автоматически): SSSR, USA, Москва.


Ключевые слова

state, diplomatic terminology, thematic group, lexical structure

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