The work describes the visual, auditory, olfactory, and taste perception of the world. Most components express the emotional, psychological, moral state of a person, the peculiarities of people’s character, and only a small number of phraseological units describe the direct physical process of visual, auditory, olfactory, and taste perception.
Keywords: world picture, linguistic world picture, cognitive perception, sensory perception, phraseological unit.
Each person has developed a certain knowledge about the world. These were obtained by direct knowledge of the surrounding reality, carried out using the senses and abstract thinking. Through the senses, we receive and analyze information from the world around us. This information forms a person’s perception of everything that surrounds him, and himself.
A picture of the world is emerging, understood as a reflection of the surrounding reality in the human psyche. The acquired knowledge is transformed, and a linguistic picture of the world arises, which is a collection of knowledge about the world that is reflected in the language.
In other words, the linguistic picture of the world is a combination of people's representations of reality fixed in units of language.
The most striking units of the language are phraseological units. Phraseologisms arise based on a figurative representation of reality, which reflects the spiritual, historical experience of the people [3, p. 214].
For effective value formation, only one language is not enough. It is imperative to attract sensory experience, visibility, and objective activity with a particular thing are necessary. The sensual image is formed by perceptual-cognitive signs that form in the consciousness of the native speaker as a result of the reflection of the surrounding reality by them with the help of the senses, as well as figurative signs formed by the metaphorical comprehension of the corresponding object or phenomenon [2, p. 108].
A person can experience several types of external sensations. The main ones are visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and taste. When sensations of any kind arise, a person develops emotions, which are the basis for the further development of feelings.
As for visual perception, about 90 % of the information from the outside world comes through the eyes.
Visual sensations cause the most vivid and deep experiences when perceiving people, nature, and works of art. Vision plays an important role in speech communication.
Based on the visual perception of facial expressions, there is a connection that is necessary for further understanding of a person by a person, emotional experiences in the form of emotional responses are formed.
It should be noted that the majority of the analyzed phraseological units were phraseological units with the component of ‘look’, ‘sight’, ‘eye’. But only a small number of phraseological units directly related to the process of visual perception: to catch sight of someone — попасться на глаза, togive a look — бросить взгляд, to feast one’s eyes on something — любоваться чем-то, to turn one's eyes on somebody — обратить взор на кого-либо, to steal a glance at — бросить взгляд украдкой на (кого-либо), to look right past — в упор не видеть, to please the eye — ласкало глаз, do not take eyes off — не отрывать глаз, to disappear from the sight — скрыться из глаз.
a) Somewhere in the distance, the sea drifted in the sky, and everything around pleased the eye. — Где-то вдалеке море сливалось с небом, всё вокруг ласкало глаз [1, p. 101].
b) Masha never takes her eyes off him. — Маша всё время не отрывает от него глаз. [1, p. 102]
c) The others were a pale, faceless lot. Only he caught the eye with his massive shoulders and energetic Tatar face. — Остальные были бледны, безличны. Один он бросался в глаза дюжим складом плеч и татарским энергичным лицом [1, p. 104].
In rare cases, phraseological units with the “eyes” component in Russian may reflect auditory perception (правда глаза колит — ‘the truth hurts’)
Several phraseological units that are directly related to auditory perception were identified: to prick up one's ears — навострить уши, to be all ears -превратиться в слух, to keep one's ears open — прислушаться, насторожиться, from the horse’s mouth — из первых уст, to look blank — хлопать ушами, to turn a deaf ear — пропускать мимо ушей, to hang on every word — слушать во все уши, to listen open-mouthed — развесить уши.
a)Lebedev performed another public service. He arranged a reading of ‘Tyorkin in the Next World.’ The foreigners looked blank, but Khrushchev laughed… — Сослужил Лебедев ещё одну службу: подстроил чтение вслух ‘Тёркина на том свете’. Иностранцы хлопали ушами, Хрущёв смеялся… [1, p. 745]
b)Admittedly, the listener usually turned a deaf ear to the remark about the steepness of the bank. — Надо сказать, что обычно слушатель пропускал мимо ушей замечание относительно крутизны берега [1, p. 745].
c)This cheerful nonsense was being delivered in such charming bass voice that the audience listened open-mouthed. — Эта весёлая чушь преподносилась таким обворожительным басом, что публика слушала, развесив уши [1, p.746].
This group of phraseological units is characterized by the fact that many of them reflect a focus on the concentration of attention, or, on the contrary, the distraction of attention.
The olfactory sensations help a person navigate in the environment: they signal the presence and location of objects with a smell, as well as their significance for humans: pleasant smells attract, unpleasant ones repel them.
Among the phraseological units under consideration that are directly related to olfactory perception, there was the only Russian phraseological unit which means unpleasant smell — ‘ударило в нос’.
Seidakhmat swayed on his feet, smiling to himself. And when he came nearer, the smell of alcohol struck the boy’s nostrils. — Сейдахмат покачивался, улыбаясь он подошел ближе, а нос мальчику ударил спиртной запах [1, p. 412].
The perception of taste in a person is closely associated with his tongue (a muscular organ in the oral cavity) on which taste buds are located. Phraseologisms directly related to the perception of taste sensations were not found.
In all the phraseological units under consideration, ‘tongue’ was, rather, a means of communication, storing and transmitting information (молоть языком — to talk to no purpose, язык сломать — difficult to pronounce, etc).
As the material shows, there are many more phraseological units with a meaning of visual and auditory perception, since the main type of sensory perceptions is vision and audition: the vast majority of the information received falls to the share of vision and audition. But few phraseological units reflect the direct physical process of olfactory and taste perception with a vivid figurative characteristic.
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