Sacred places of Turkestan region | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Рубрика: История

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №19 (309) май 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 07.05.2020

Статья просмотрена: 1 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Жумадилла, К. С. Sacred places of Turkestan region / К. С. Жумадилла. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 19 (309). — С. 401-403. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/309/69446/ (дата обращения: 29.05.2020).



Еvery nation, еvеry civilization has holy places, which are of national character, which are known to every representative of this people. Тhis is one of the foundations of spiritual traditions. For Кazakhstan this is еspecially important, because we are a huge country with a rich spiritual history.

Тhere are many sacred places in the South Turkestan region. In this area there is the mausoleum of Arystan-Bab, Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, Ibrahim-ata, Karashash-Ana. For example, near the Arystan-Bab mausoleum there is a well with salt water that has healing properties, but the Turks consider Turkestan the second Mecca. And in the village of Sairam, a historical monument of architecture of the 19th century, the mausoleum of Karashash-An was dedicated to the mother of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. There is also the mausoleum of Ibrahim Ata. In the 11th century, Sairam was the center of the spread of Islam. Many religious teachers and scholars have lived here. And it is known that the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, built by order of Emir Timur in 1396–1399 in Turkestan, began to be scientifically studied as a historical and cultural heritage by the end of the 19th century. In each region of the region there are many legends, monuments and mausoleums. The region also has beautiful sights and legendary shrines. Currently, a list of 100 places is presented daily to the project “Geography of the sacred places of Kazakhstan”. We wanted to introduce you to some places that most people do not know.

The White Mosque Auli Cave is located at the foot of the Karatau ridge at an altitude of 250 m, in the village of Kokterek, Baidibek district. According to legends from generation to generation, it was said that in ancient times there was an underground mosque. With an average area, you have access to several fortresses. Later these roads were blocked and it was impossible to reach the mosque. In the 20th century, part of the dome was demolished, leading to a cave. Those who get to the Holy Land will make this place holy. According to another legend, the cave inhabited children and Kazakh women to avoid the Dzungar invasion. Today, the number of those who want to see the sanctuary has grown. There are many mysterious secrets in the cave. Inside the cave is a cool, cold blow. His miracle is that it contains many trees, plants and birds. In the center of the cave, a height of 10–15 m. Owls, called the «holy bird», has been found among Kazakhs for many years.

Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi.

The building of Ahmet Yasavi in ​​Turkestan is a monument of medieval architecture. The mausoleum is installed on top of the grave of Akhmet Yassavi, a famous Turkic poet and preacher of Sufism, throughout the East during the 12th century. The Ahmed Yasawi Mausoleum is the highest domed ceramic structure in Central Asia and Kazakhstan.The building is symmetrical in appearance and has 35 rooms and rooms. All of them are connected with each other by 8 corridors with two corridors and various transitional stairs. The mausoleum is inscribed on the World Heritage List.

Mausoleum of Arystan bab.

The Otrar district is located 3 km northwest of the village of Kogam. The mausoleum was erected on the grave of Arystan-Bab, a religious leader who was the spiritual mentor of Yassavi K. A. The first building of the mausoleum dates from the XIV-XV centuries. It has wooden columns carved from a building. In the eighteenth century, the mausoleum was destroyed and rebuilt in 1909. In 1971, the mausoleum was demolished due to groundwater and was restored at the expense of local residents. A place of tourist significance in the region. Designed candle holders, special pilgrimage, living and sacrificial rooms. Visitors can visit the area year-round.

White Ishan Mosque.

Initially, the small mosque was built of brick and replaced by a large mosque. The white horse has the shape of the letter of Ishan's madrasah (P). The madrasah consists of 32 rooms: 4 rooms, 3 corridors, 25 rooms (rooms). Madrasahs are single-story, with a total area of ​​50x50 m, rooms 3x6 m. The arches of each room are arched. The doors of the rooms are wooden, with small windows above the doors. It is interesting for tourists as a monument of architecture. It is located in the village of Shayan, Baidibek district.

The mausoleum of Baidibek bi.

Baidibek Bi Mausoleum is located in the area of ​​Baidibek Ata village, Baidibek district of Turkestan region. In 1966, Baidibek Karashevich was replaced by the old-fashioned dome of the mausoleum on the high banks of the Balabogen River in a model of the Karahan era. Masters of Samarkand, Tashkent, Sairam, Shymkent participated in the construction of the Baidibek Ata mausoleum. A 6-ton white marble tombstone was molded in honor of the great-grandfather by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Mausoleum of Domalak Ana.

The mausoleum of Domalak was repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt. For the first time, Abdullah Sheri, the granddaughter of Dulat Bukhara, arranged for a servant and built a mausoleum in 1456. The mausoleum, reconstructed in 1957, has not survived for a long time. It was built in 1996–1997 according to the project of the famous architect Sain Nazarbekovich, sponsored by individual entrepreneurs. With the construction of the new mausoleum, the mausoleum was completely transformed from its original form. The new dome with a white stone, brought from Mangistau at a height of 12 meters, has a new eight-sheeted structure and a dome on the main part.

Otyrar city.

The Otrar district is located on the southern outskirts of the village of Talapty, not far from the Syr Darya river in the Arys river. The appearance of the village is typical of most of the medieval monuments of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. In the form of a pentagonal hill 18 m high. Roof area — 20 ga. It is surrounded by a wall. Some of its faces are already 75–800 vertical. There were turrets on the wall, and they were kept in the form of towers that emerged from the wall outside. Behind the wall there was a flat pit with a depth of 2–3 m and a width of 10–15 m. There were three entrances to the city. Two are opposite each other, on the southern and northeastern walls, and the third on the western wall.

Uzun Ata.

He is located in the Uzin-Ata rural district of the Shardara district. Emir Timur was built in the late 14th century. The mausoleum was built of burnt bricks. Due to his high growth, he was called «Uzun-ata», and his real name is Asan-ata.

According to legend, Asan-ata is the first spreading religion in our region. Lame accompanied him as one of Timur's chief advisers. In the last years of his life, he was awarded the honor of the people of the country, became governor, caretaker and saint.

Kyrykkyzy Aulie.

It is located at the entrance to the village of Ugam, Kazygurt district. Forty Girl — an ancient historical and natural monument. There are two monuments in the Kazygurt region. For many centuries, nature was considered a sacred monument. According to ancient legends, in the last days of the postwar years, the invaders saw 40 girls who wandered the Karabau water outside the country and left. Then the girls say to God: make this enemy and us a stone, until I make my country and my land an enemy! The wishes of the girls are welcomed, and the enemy army turns into a black stone. Now this place is called Karatas. And the girls are said to have become a wonderful monument. Monuments are located at the source of the Akkum River in the northeast of the village of Turbat. The waterfall is 5–6 km from the village near the ridge. The second stone sculpture, called the Forty Girl, is located 4–5 km southeast of the eastern tip of Mount Kazygurt (“Horde has landed”), at the entrance to the Ugam basin.

Mausoleum of Ibrahim Ata.

Shymkent, located in the north-eastern part of the Sairam residential district. The mausoleum of Ibrahim Ata is an architectural monument erected on the grave of a famous preacher. The mausoleum is located on a high hill along the road to the village of Aksu. The area of ​​the mausoleum of Ibrahim-Ata is 7.2x7.2 m in length and 8.25 m in length. Entrance to the south, and wooden to the windows to the west. Originally built in the 16–17th centuries, the mausoleum was destroyed during wars and invasions of nature, and was later rebuilt in the 19th century. Ibrahim was the father of the famous Sufi Khoja Ahmed Yassawi, a religious leader and renowned preacher in these areas. Ibrahim was a successful farmer from an ancestral family. There are many legends about his divinity and his ability to preach. Ibrahim was pious, helping those in need and preaching Islam to thousands of followers.

Ex-president of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. A. Nazarbayev in his program article «Looking into the Future: Modernization of Public Consciousness» spoke of the launch of the project «Spiritual Shrines of Kazakhstan» or «Sacral Geography of Kazakhstan». A map of sacred places is drawn up, which in the future will attract tourists and pilgrims from both Kazakhstan and abroad.

References:

  1. Electronic resource: https://el.kz/news/cities/ontustiktegi_kieli_20_orin/
  2. Electronic resource: https://malimetter.kz/turkistan-ajmagynyn-tarixi-madeni-eskertkishteri/
  3. Electronic resource: https://astanatimes.com/2018/08/turkestan-ancient-city-traversing-rich-history/
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