The article considers issues related to the problem of implementing the acmeological approach in the context of vocational training; the psychological and pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the acmeological approach, focused on the formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality of students, are justified; The structure and content of the acmeological orientation of the personality, the implementation of the acmeological approach in vocational training, contribute to the formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality of students.
Keywords: acmeological approach, acmeological orientation, professional goal-setting, professional motivation, methods of acmeological-oriented education, structure, formation, acmeology, desire for success.
Modern education should be aimed at creating conditions that ensure high quality professional training of future specialists, developing their ability to independently solve life and personal problems.
This is especially true for the training of modern junior specialists, since the future of the whole society depends on the effectiveness of their solution to the problem. As teachers and psychologists who study the problems of the influence of the personality of a teacher on students (A. V. Mudrik, V. A. Slastenin, N. F. Talyzina, etc.) emphasize that only teachers who have reached the level of creative individuality in their professional development are able to exert the impact on the formation of the personality of their pupils .
This issue relates to the subject of acmeology of education, the central task of which is to find ways and paths that actualize and develop the potential of future specialists, their desire to achieve the heights of professionalism (V. A. Yakunin). The implementation of the acmeological approach to modern professional education will enhance the professional motivation of future specialists, stimulate their creative potential, identify and make fruitful use of personal resources to achieve success in professional activities through the formation of an acmeological orientation of the personality (A. A. Derkach, N. V. Kuzmina, A. K. Markova, G. V. Reva and others) [1,3].
In modern studies on the problems of professional training and professional development of a person, much attention is paid to the formation of individual personality traits in the context of solving urgent educational problems, developing appropriate approaches, technologies and techniques. However, we did not find studies that reveal the essence, purpose, and conditions for the implementation of the acmeological approach in professional and pedagogical education, including in the context of the formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality of teachers. The solution to this problem was devoted to our study.
We suggested that the implementation of the acmeological approach in vocational training will contribute to the formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality of students if:
– identify the essence and content of the acmeological approach and the basis for its implementation in vocational education;
– identify the structure and content of the acmeological orientation of the personality of the teacher and consider the formation of this quality as the goal of the implementation of the acmeological approach to education.
– to develop a model for the implementation of the acmeological approach in professional and pedagogical education, the system-forming component of which will be the acmeological orientation of the personality of students.
One of the urgent problems of our time is the formation of specialists' abilities and needs in the constant updating of professional knowledge and skills, in creative self-development, in focus on achieving the heights of professionalism. One of the most effective modern approaches to purposefully and comprehensively solve these problems is the acmeological approach.
The acmeological approach is a system of principles, techniques and methods to solve acmeological problems and problems; its implementation in vocational education determines progressive changes in the content and level of orientation of the personality of future specialists, in the level of their theoretical, methodological and practical professional readiness.
The main task of acmeology-oriented teachers in the vocational training of students is to ensure that students master the knowledge and technologies necessary for their successful self-realization in the profession, develop appropriate motivation for activities based on data obtained as a result of solving specific research problems.
The essence of introducing the acmeological approach into vocational education lies in the direction of research and formative influences on actualizing the creative potential of students, increasing their professional motivation and motivation to achieve success in activities, which involves creating conditions for students to learn progressive, modern methods and technologies of training and education, self-education and self-development. The aim of the implementation of the acmeological approach in the system of training teachers is the implementation of acmeological and pedagogical impact on students in order to form their acmeological orientation of the personality as a core property and the most important indicator of professionalism.
The orientation of the personality is an integrative quality, including goals, values, motives, aspirations, etc., determining the personality’s activity and determining the vector of this activity. Acmeological orientation is a qualitative characteristic of the general orientation of the personality, orienting a person to progressive development (including professional), to maximum creative self-realization, both in the professional sphere and in life as a whole.
The specific, professional content of the acmeological orientation of the personality is the orientation of future specialists towards the implementation in their professional activities of the acmeological concept of education and the development of the theory and methodology of acmeologized education.
Based on the essence and content of the acmeological orientation of the personality, we have identified its components:
professional-value orientations, professional goal-setting, professional motivation and desire for success.
The formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality of students is assessed by such indicators as knowledge of the content of professional and pedagogical values and their acceptance as personally significant in the context of motivation for professional activity and professional self-development, awareness of the social and personal goals of professional activity and professional self-development, their correspondence to each other, the ability to predict your professional path, the formation of professional interests and educational needs, the presence of reflexive abilities, the desire for self-development and creative self-realization in the profession. Differentiation of these indicators makes it possible to single out cognitive, emotionally-evaluative, and motivational-behavioral criteria for assessing the formation of the acmeological orientation of a person.
The content of the identified psychological and pedagogical conditions can determine the following sequence of stages of the implementation of the acmeological approach in vocational pedagogical education.
- Organizational, related to the preparation of teachers for activities on the implementation of the acmeological approach. Tasks: updating the acmeological knowledge of teachers; mastering (updating) the means and methods of acmeology-oriented education; changing the professional position of teachers in relation to students and the content of their own professional activities.
The successful implementation of the acmeological approach was ensured, in addition to the purposeful organization of the identified psychological and pedagogical conditions (including the use of adequate methods and techniques for the formation of the acmeological orientation of the personality), by observing the following sequence of changes in the preferred orientation of pedagogical influences: cognitive, emotional-evaluative and motivational-behavioral orientation.
The cognitive component of the experimental work was focused on providing students with the assimilation of theoretical knowledge, internalization of professional and pedagogical values, goals of pedagogical activity, reflection, goals and values of professional self-development and professional-creative self-realization, professional goal-setting. To organize the perception and assimilation of information, techniques and methods were used to enhance student attention and arouse interest in theoretical content; the consolidation of theoretical material was carried out using the methods of mnemonic activity.
- The emotional and evaluative orientation of pedagogical influences was associated with the organization of students' awareness and valuable understanding of information, their adoption of professional and pedagogical goals and values, as well as the goals and values of professional self-development and creative self-realization as personally significant. These tasks were solved through the use of the following techniques and methods: substantiating the significance of the studied value-filled material, actualizing students' reflection of their own feelings and relationships, emotional infection, vitagenic education techniques.
- The motivational and behavioral aspect of the pedagogical work was aimed at the formation of sustainable motivation of professional activity and professional self-development among students, the need for creative self-realization, in achieving professional success, as well as the basics of acmeological-oriented behavior and activity. This was achieved through the application of the following methods and techniques: comparison and socio-psychological identification, social support and a positive assessment of the activity, creating problem situations and situations of choice, competitive and game methods, creative modeling of ideal objects.
Consistent and purposeful implementation of the acmeological approach in the educational process ensures the creative and independent nature of the educational activities of students, determining the internalization of professional values and actualizing the individual’s desire for creative professional self-improvement and self-realization.
- A. A. Derkach Methodological and applied foundations of acmeological research. M.2000.392 s.
- L. A. Efimova, N. I. Avdonina, Factors affecting the formation of motives for students' educational activities // Research on the motivational sphere of personality: Interuniversity collection of scientific papers. Novosmbmsk. Publishing house of NGPI. 1984, pp. 104–113
- N. V. Kuzmina Professionalism of the personality of the teacher and master of industrial training. M.1990.120s.