Byron and Uzbek literature (to the history of professional literary translations) | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

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Авлаева, С. Б. Byron and Uzbek literature (to the history of professional literary translations) / С. Б. Авлаева, Р. Х. Хусанова, Г. Х. Тураева, М. А. Номозова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 17 (307). — С. 439-441. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/307/69252/ (дата обращения: 29.05.2020).



The article discusses the issues of professional literary translations of the works of the outstanding English romantic poet George Gordon Byron into the Uzbek language. The necessity of applying modern approaches to studying the heritage of the great writer, taking into account national identity and universal values, and studying the influence of the East on the work of J. Byron is emphasized.

Key words: English literature of the 17th-19th centuries, comparative literature, literary translation.

В статье рассматриваются вопросы профессиональных художественных переводов произведений выдающегося английского поэта-романтика Джорджа Гордона Байрона на узбекский язык. Подчеркивается необходимость применения современных подходов к изучению наследия великого литератора, учета национального своеобразия и общечеловеческих ценностей, исследования влияния Востока на творчество Дж.Байрона.

Ключевые слова: английская литература XVII–XIX вв., сравнительное литературоведение, художественный перевод.

George Gordon Byron has made a huge contribution to world literature. His works have been translated into more than 100 languages of the world.

It is believed that the beginning of the widespread penetration of English literature in Central Asia dates back to the middle of the 16th century, or rather, the visit of the famous traveler Anthony Jenkinson (1529–1610). The Turkestan, Bukhara and Khiva intelligentsia of the 19th century also learned about the best examples of English literature from Russian, Turkish, Persian, Tatar, Crimean Tatar, Azerbaijani and Arabic translations. The famous Uzbek-Tajik enlightener Ahmad Donish (1827–1897) became one of the first authoritative experts in European literature. Later, the intelligentsia of Western Europe was introduced to the local intelligentsia by the author of the first Uzbek play Mahmudhodzha Behbudi (1875–1919), the first “Uzbek Magellan” Mirzo Siroj (1877–1914), the first Uzbek professor Abdurrauf Fitrat (1986–1937), etc.

Of particular note is the acquaintance of the Turkic world with the work of Byron through poetic translations of the national poet Gabdulla Tukay (1886–1913), and other prominent Tatar intellectuals. In their works, they were able, with the help of a special language, to reflect the eternal spiritual values ​​that bind and unite the peoples of the West and East.

When another famous Tatar poet, translator and public figure Sagit Sunchely (1889–1937) completed the translation of Byron’s “Prisoner of Chillon”, G. Tukai wrote to him: “If the Gasr publishing house will publish the Prisoner of Chillon”, I will be the first to congratulate you on this success ”(January 22, 1911). G. Tukai wrote a preface to the publication of a translation of the poem, in which he welcomed this achievement: “Was there at least one translation into our Tatar language that gave rise to“ Byronism ”and gave the world a great and high feeling? Of course, there was no such translation. Sagit Effendi fulfilled this task ” [3].

Indeed, for example, Taktashev’s “Tragedy of the Sons of the Earth” is directly inspired by the dramatic poem “Cain” — the same biblical story, the same religious and mythological images, the same rebellious theological struggle [2]. One of the founders of the new Tatar poetry, Hadi Taktash (1901–1931), who lived in Uzbekistan for a long time (the cities of Bukhara and Tashkent), speaking of Byron’s reckless passion spent in his youth, wrote: “The spirit of fiery Byron sits in me...” [1]

Byron became widely known to the Uzbek reader as early as the 1920s. XX century (then, in Soviet times, new, high requirements were imposed on the translation — it was especially important to observe the scientific principles of editing). Byron's works in the twentieth century were translated by such large Uzbek poets as Aybek (Musa Tashmukhamedov) (1905–1968), Maksud Sheikhzade (1908–1967), Hamid Alimjan (1909–1944), Shukrullo (b.1921), Jumaniyaz Jabbarov (1930 -2010), Muhammad Ali (b.1942), Rauf Parfi (1943–2005), Khayriddin Salah (b.1934), Abdullah Sher (b.1943), Abdulhamid Parda (b.1958).

Aybek, for example, masterfully, according to experts, retells, conveying the transformation of the Byron mystery of mortal sin into an exciting mystery of irreconcilable atonement (“Cain”).

In Byron's works, Maksud Sheikhzade was primarily interested in the revolutionary spirit of romance (in 1958 this Uzbek poet translated several songs from Childe Harold, with their gloomy protest against the vulgarity of the surrounding reality).

Rauf Parfi, experts believe, managed to maintain a philosophical, peculiar dialogical genre, the specificity of the pessimism of the Manfred tragedy. H. Salah managed to convey to the satire of the Bronze Age, Byron’s appeal to the people to protect their rights, increase past valor and courage. [4]

Quite original in the translations of Uzbek writers «From the diary in Kefalonia», «Moon» [4]

(A special topic is the influence of such a master of Uzbek translation studies as Ozod Sharafiddinov (1929–2005), the school of writers founded by him, and the unique journal “Zhanon adabiyoti” (“World Literature”) on introducing the Uzbek reader to traditional and modern English literature).

The narrative of Byron's translations would be incomplete without mentioning the name of the outstanding Karakalpak writer Ibrahim Yusupov (1929–2008).

A specific side of the problem we are considering is the effect on Russian literary translations of Central Asia on Byron's literary translations into the local languages. (It is noteworthy that the famous Tajik Timur Zulfikarov, paraphrasing Byron, and bearing in mind also the negative trends in the literary process, once said: “a speculative essay written without inspiration is a rust of literature” [6].

I must say that the theme “Byron and Uzbek literature” is still almost undeveloped by modern literary criticism. Scientific works characterize only the quantitative side of the issue, leaving virtually no attention to the qualitative side. It is important to understand not only what the masters of literary translation in Uzbekistan followed, but also what they refused, which they could not share and accept from Byron. It is also important to know what subjects of Byron's works were most in demand in the era of globalization (it should be extensive, because Byron had succeeded in criticizing the “aristocracy of villains,” which, in his opinion, could only aggravate population degradation and accelerate the collapse of the country).

The Uzbek scientist Tursunov Ibragim Nuralievich in his dissertation focused on the works of Byron.

The problem remains the general level of modern translation art in Central Asia, which, admittedly, has significantly decreased, and the main reason for this was the commercial benefit expected from the republishing of Western literature.

References:

  1. Усманова Д. М. Европейские путешествия Исмаила Гаспринского, Фатыха Карими и Садри Максуди // Веб-сайт Издательского дома «Медина» — www.idmedina.ru 3.
  2. Бәйрәмова Ф. Үтерелгән пәйгамбәр. Һади Такташның тууына 95 ел тулу уңаеннан // Аргамак. — 1995. — № 5. — Б.54.
  3. Мустафин Р. Поэт негаснущей романтики // Татарский мир. — 2011. — № 1. — С.4–5.
  4. Шамсиева Б. Байрон в Узбекистане // Ўзбекистон маданияти. — 1978. — 28 января.
  5. Зульфикаров Т. «Освободить будущее от прошлого? Освободить прошлое от будущего?» // Личный веб-сайт Тимура Касымовича Зульфикарова — www.zulfikarov.ru
  6. Турсунов И. Н. Халқ термаларининг тарихий асослари ва бадиияти. Филол. фан. номз. дисс... автореф. — Тошкент, 2011. — 24 б.


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