Phraseologisms are among the active means of creating an author’s position, forming a narrative point of view and contribute to the successful decoding of an author’s intention, as they convey dominant textual meanings, represent the conceptual content of a literary text, and translate specific features of a writer’s linguistic personality.
To date, the problem of studying a system of interdependent functions of phraseological units in fiction requires in-depth monographic research. In modern linguistics, a methodology for a comprehensive analysis of phraseological units has not yet been developed, which would allow to identify and substantiate the hierarchy of functions and roles of phraseological units in narrative discourse.
One of the means of figurative and expressive literary speech is winged words. Winged words are a term that refers to short quotes, figurative expressions, sayings of historical persons, names of mythological and literary characters that have come to our speech from literary sources, become common nouns, etc. Often the term “winged words” is interpreted in a broader sense: denote folk sayings, sayings, all kinds of figurative expressions that arose not only from literary sources, but also in everyday life. Winged words or phraseologisms are studied in the section of linguistics, studying stable combinations of words — phraseology.
The use of phraseologisms in our speech is particularly important, which is why phraseology is beginning to be studied at school and continued to be studied at a university in more depth according to the bachelor's program. Due to the properties of phraseological units, namely: figurative expressiveness and unity of meaning, our speech becomes brighter, more emotional, imaginative, and expressive. That is why almost all famous writers used phraseological units to create the color and stylistic coloring of their works. The main task that must be solved when teaching a foreign language is that the processes of mastering knowledge about the structure and functioning of the English language, mastering the basic norms of the modern literary language, the formation of the ability to use its richest stylistic resources are organically combined with the intensive development of speech-thinking, intellectual, creative abilities. That is why in the school course of the English language, the section of the language science phraseology occupies a special place. Familiarization with it involves the knowledge of the basic properties of the studied linguistic units, their linguistic features and functioning in speech, phraseological wealth of the language. The formation of educational and language skills as a task of studying phraseology in a school helps to consolidate the linguistic knowledge gained.
With the help of phraseological tools, literary communication is actively carried out at all levels of its organization: at the external textual level — in the field of author — reader; at the intertextual level — in the areas of narrator — character, character — character; on the intertextual — in the sphere author 1 — author 2. Phraseological units participate in the creation of compositional-speech structures of an artistic narrative, in the formation of a narrative point of view, contribute to the dialogue of the author’s monological word and combine various subjective-speech plans into a single structural-semantic and communicative whole, providing narrative polyphony of literary text.
In addition, the study of phraseological units should be accompanied by their use in speech, interpretation of the meaning of phraseological turns and their appropriate use in conversation. This is also one of the tasks of teaching children in English classes devoted to the study of the phraseology section.
In higher education, the main goal is to give an idea of phraseological units as a linguistic unit. The following tasks follow from the goal:
– show the similarities and differences with the word and phrase
– show the specific meaning of phraseological units in comparison with a free phrase
– give an idea of systemic relationships in phraseology (synonymy, antonymy)
– give a concept of phraseological dictionaries .
However, the small number of hours devoted to this topic does not allow for a sufficiently broad review, therefore, according to the researchers, the teacher should limit himself to only the most significant points:
1) the specificity of phraseological units in comparison with words and with free phrases
2) stylistic coloring of phraseological units
3) systemic relationships between phraseological units or phraseological units and words (synonymy, antonymy). 
In the study of phraseology, such general methodological principles as extralinguistic, systemic, functional, synchronous with the appeal to diachrony are used. One of the important aspects of the study of phraseological units is the consideration of their functioning, that is, the use of different styles in texts. Here the connection between lessons on the theory of phraseology and lessons on the development of speech is constantly carried out. The object of study at the school is modern English. All basic concepts are considered in a synchronous slice. However, in the course of lexicology (and in particular phraseology) there is an appeal to the process of historical development of the language. In the course of studying phraseology, students should acquire the following skills:
– determine the lexical meaning of phraseology, distinguish it from grammatical meaning
– give an interpretation of the lexical meaning of phraseological units taken from the context (descriptively or through the selection of synonyms)
– find phraseological units in the text
– select synonyms and antonyms for phraseological turns
– give examples of phraseological units
– group phraseological units on a given basis
– determine the function of using phraseological units in the text
– use the phraseological dictionary.
Studying a topic such as Phraseology at a university requires students to constantly search for, the ability to analyze, compare and find the most effective and rational ways of mastering knowledge, ways of creating conscious skills, independent thinking, and cognitive activity. The future teacher should be a true researcher: be able to analyze, generalize the experience gained, creatively use the methodological heritage of the past and the achievements of modern techniques.
When studying phraseology, the teacher uses the following activities: lectures, practical exercises, essays, reports, laboratory work, and tests. The training of students at a pedagogical university consists of assimilating theories about phraseology and mastering the skills to teach future students to use phraseologisms in different fields of their application. Each section of the science of language has its own specifics. In the study of phraseology in the university, inextricably with the section of the science of the language “lexicology”, the following principles apply:
– lexical and grammatical (comparison of the lexical and grammatical meanings of a word)
– systemic (taking into account all the elements of the lexical paradigm
– contextual (consideration of a word in its syntagmatic connections in a sufficient context);
– lexicosyntactic (matching words and phrases).
All these principles provide students with an understanding of the essence of the word and phraseologism, the need to consider them in a context from which the semantics of a word can be ascertained. Phraseology, together with vocabulary, in a university study of English takes a less significant place both in volume and allotted time than, for example, morphology or syntax. However, familiarization with this section requires knowledge of its basic functioning in speech.
- Dubrovina K. I. Linguistic foundations of stylistic techniques for the use of phraseological units in fiction and journalism // Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Series «Linguistics”. — 2005. — №. 7. — P. 100–118
- Krysin L. P. Modern Russian: Lexical semantics. Lexicology. Phraseology. Lexicography: study guide. 2nd ed. M.: Academy, 2009. — 240 p.