This article addresses the issue of pro-social individual’s activity, pro-social behavior terms, social education activity etc.
Key words: pro-social behavior, educational organization, teacher’s professional behavior.
Concept of pro-social (or helping) behavior is commonly used in modern world of psychological science. It is worth mentioning, this concept was not used in national science until recent years. It is also not included in modern authoritative edition of «The Great Psychological Dictionary» edited by B. G. Mescheryakov and V. P. Zinchenko. And the term «pro-social behavior» has been considered as an antonym for «anti-social behavior» from the beginning of 1980s in Western (American) social psychology textbooks.
Pro-social behavior in its’ broadest sense is taken to refer to some individual’s voluntary actions to the benefit of another person or to the whole society (on the opposite side there is anti-social behavior) .
For sociologists pro-social behavior has been some kind of challenge for a while. Scientists are trying to figure out the reason why people are prone to help others when it will cost them. Sometimes people endanger themselves in an effort to help others even absolute strangers.
Psychologists usually talk about several reasons of demonstrating pro-social behavior. Such behavior on many occasions is encouraged in childhood and adolescence: adults endorse and reinforce positive actions by children whether they show compassion to other person or provide assistance .
Evolutionary theory psychologists frequently condemn pro-social behavior in terms of natural selection. Obviously, there is very low chance for the exact human who acts recklessly to transmit their genes to further generations.
However, the concept of relative selection implies that an individual who helps relatives also supports survival of the generation and genes transmittance. Some researches showed people are more likely to help those who they are bounded by blood with .
Pro-social behavior is frequently considered as compelled due to the amount of reasons including selfish issues (confidence building), mutual benefits (when an act of help turns to beneficial act) or more altruistic one (support for sympathy and compassion) .
There is a pro-social behavior model introduced by S. Lindenberg. This model formulated in 2006 requires using a situational theory for pro-social behavior analysis. According to it at any situation an individual could watch a selective sensitization effect — highlighting and emphasis of one object, factor or reason and overshadowing the others. This ability is based on human psyche nature and mental features (attention selectivity, perception etc.).
To summarize, based on analysis of scientific and practical theories we may conclude pro-social behavior as the behavior aiming to help other people. Pro-social behavior is characterized by concern for other people’s rights, feelings and well-being. A pro-social behavior could also be described as compassionate and caring for others, as well as aiming to help and provide benefit to other individuals.
While talking about teacher’s pro-social activity (pre-school and school teachers, teachers for children with special needs and teachers in boarding schools), most notably there is mentioned the supportive role to help child with personal development, self-growth and education . The reasons referred to by M. V. Yerkhova included a necessity to distinguish a special kind of attitude which integrates with teacher’s personal and social role qualities and aims to support child with safe social adaptation with further personal development . M. V. Yerkhova claimed such attitude as teacher’s helping behavior and as one of the means of student’s support.
From the one side pro-social teacher’s behavior is integrative; it appears in helping attitude and pedagogical issues. From the other side such behavior manifests social role and personal abilities of a teacher. This also allows broadening the pedagogical influence on child’s personality while forming their active or reflexive student’s position . It is expected that implementation of such approach improves teacher and student interference as well as trains teachers to provide more humane and trustworthy relationship with students.
According to М. V. Yerkhova professional behavior of teachers turns to a helping one when two requirements are followed:
а) a teacher has positive self-esteem and positive attitude towards the student, independence in assessments and estimations, and stays open-minded;
b) a teacher has mastered in helping behavior techniques which are integrated with their individual and professional potential .
Taking into account that social education jobs and activities considered high risks of psychological and professional burnout there should be a clear teacher’s pro-social activity management in educational organizations. The key role in this management belongs to the head of these organizations.
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