Social work with young people understand the specific type of professional activity aimed at improving the quality of youth population, by state, municipal and commercial organizations, including the combination of legal, social, medical, economic, psycho-social, pedagogical, organizational, preventive, informational and other measures to prevent negative trends in the youth environment and formation of socially significant properties and qualities of the young generation. A distinctive feature of social work with young people is the active involvement of young people in social activities aimed at overcoming their crisis situations.
The main problem of social work in this case is the formation of the young generation's ability to solve their own problems, adapt to the new socio-economic conditions of the market economy, acquire skills for independent life and participation in self-government.
The subject of this type of activity is social services, which are an integral part of an integral (Federal, regional, municipal, etc.) system for organizing social work with young people; these services provide information and resources for the system of social support for the young generation at all levels.
The system of social services in the Russian Federation is a complex of state, non-state structures, as well as specialized institutions aimed at providing social assistance and social protection to young people, to support their initiatives, and includes a mandatory minimum of institutions for each city or district:
a) social service center (contains departments: social. help on. home, day, or temporary. stay, urgent. social assistance);
b) social assistance center. family and children;
c) social rehabilitation center for. minor;
d) social shelter for children. and teenagers.
It also includes: psychological and pedagogical centers. emergency psychological assistance centers. telephone assistance; rehabilitation centers for. children and adolescents with disabilities, as well as help centers. children left without care. parents, etc.
The main goals of such services are:
– formation of the system of social services for young people as a unified state-public system of social and psychological support for young people;
– identification of conditions that determine the formation of antisocial behavior in young people;
– providing urgent assistance to young people in difficult situations;
– increasing the degree of independence of young people, their ability to control their own lives and resolve difficulties most effectively;
– the formation of conditions in which a fashion person, despite the crisis of life, will be able to maintain a sense of self-esteem, self-respect on the part of society; to achieve such a result that he will no longer need help from a social worker (the final goal).
The scope of social work among young people is wide and diverse. It contains several adjacent currents one of them is the social protection of young people, which is understood as a set of state measures of a social, economic, and legal nature aimed at ensuring minimum standards guaranteed by the state for different groups of young people.
The second direction is social assistance to the younger generation. This assistance consists in the care of the state and society for the young generation, who need support due to age, health, social status, and can be considered as a redistribution of financial resources between different groups of young people on the basis of current legislation.
It should be noted here that social support for a number of social categories of young people, such as low — income groups of children, teenagers, students, young workers and young professionals, is ultimately both economically and socially effective, since after some time these objects of social work will be active subjects of market relations and can contribute to increasing the national wealth of our country.
The third direction of social work with youth is social pedagogy, which includes both assistance to needy categories of young people, and the process of their socialization, social. prevention and education.
Most often, social work with the younger generation is discussed about such problems as the growth of crime, drug addiction and suicide, the deterioration of the health of the younger generation, social orphanhood, homelessness, violence against minors in families, youth unemployment, moral promiscuity, lack of spirituality, social apathy of young people, deformed attitudes to work, etc.
Currently, social work with young people in the field of employment is becoming particularly relevant. A social work specialist can actively promote employment through interaction with employment centers, recruitment agencies, attracting young people to professional development and retraining programs, focusing on the needs of the labor market. The assistance of a social worker in promoting employment of young people is very important, since unemployment can lead to an asocial lifestyle and such phenomena as drug addiction, alcoholism, prostitution and crime among young people, conflict situations at home. That is why the priority directions of social youth policy are: attracting the young generation to public practice and informing them about potential development opportunities; forming their creative activity; integration of young people who find themselves in difficult living conditions into the life of society.
A significant area of social work with young people is the social prevention of deviant and criminal behavior. Crime among young people is actively growing, which is due to the socio-economic transformations taking place in our country. Social work is able to minimize the risks that social instability entails in our society through comprehensive assistance and support to young people, because it is social work that is entrusted with these functions.
A social specialist, if necessary, should perform an intermediary function between a young person who needs assistance (medical, psychological, legal, or Advisory) and a specialist who is competent to provide the requested type of assistance (doctor, psychologist, lawyer, consultant, etc.).
This realization has led to the fact that one of the activities of the Federal Agency for youth Affairs is «Socialization of youth in need of special protection of the state», which focuses on the socialization of young people who use psychoactive substances; young people in conflict with the law, as well as training specialists to work with this category of young people.
The above-mentioned and a number of other problems really characterize the «youth field» of modern Russian society, but only to a certain extent.
In the eyes of the youth themselves, the problems that are most important to solve are the following: 28.5 % indicate an improvement in their financial situation; 27.4 % indicate a stable, high-paid job, and in their specialty, career growth, avoiding unemployment or reduction; 20.2 % note getting a higher education; 19.7 % note finding their own housing; 11.0 % indicate solving a health problem, improving family relations; 7.7 % exclude the consequences of the economic crisis; 5.5 % want to marry or get married, start a family, have a child.
All the problems of the modern youth system can, if not prevent, then contribute to the formation of adequate social attitudes, changing behavior and value systems for the better, can properly set social work with young people.
Along with the classic methods of working with young people, new ones are being created, which can include «mobile» social work with young people. The emergence of this method is associated with the need to influence and control the part of the young generation that does not apply to youth centers or social protection agencies, but at the same time, is predisposed to deviant behavior and aggression.
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