The article discusses the hypothetical establishments of approaches and strategies for showing English; A point by point portrayal of the oral methodology, situational language preparing and the sound discourse technique is given.
Keywords: second language, international language, oral approach, audio-speech method, situational approach.
Approaches and strategies for showing English, just as any unknown dialect, are at present continually being reflected and reevaluated because of the way that the exceptionally comprehension of the idea of the language, how to learn it, and furthermore in light of the developing interest of instructive establishments around the globe are changing the world for increasingly powerful preparing programs. Why in the modern world is English regarded as an international language? Obviously, in order to consider language as such, its widespread use is a prerequisite. But if you look at the table of the most used languages in the world, then English will be only in third place! The thing is that in the world the number of people who speak English as a foreign language is constantly increasing, and today there are fewer native speakers than people who use English for intercultural communication. Another factor affecting the use of English as a global language is that the use of English is geographically widespread, unlike other global languages such as Chinese (1,213,000,000 native speakers) and Spanish (329,000,000). This allows you to use English interculturally both within the same country and across political borders.
Smith (1976) was maybe the first to characterize the expression «universal language» — «global is the language utilized by individuals of various nationalities to speak with one another». Working on growing and concretizing the meaning of «worldwide language», Smith makes a few significant explanations in regards to the connection among IJ and culture :
− People studying the “international language” do not need to adopt the cultural norms of the speakers of that language;
− Possession of the “international language” is denationalized;
− The educational goal of learning the “international language” is to enable learners to share their thoughts and culture with others.
The term «second language» means the study of the language following the mother tongue. Despite the fact that the language is called the second, in reality, it can be the third, fourth or even tenth. The sphere of mastering the second language includes informal learning, which occurs naturally, and formal learning, which is carried out in classrooms. The scientific literature provides clear distinctions between the terms “second language” and “foreign language”. The second language is a typically official or socially dominant language, necessary for teaching, working, and other standard goals. We often study in small groups of people or immigrants who speak a different language from birth. In this narrower sense, this term is contrasted with the others on this list. A foreign language is a language that is rarely used in the closest to the studying social environment, can be used in future travels in the future or any other intercultural communication, studied as a compulsory subject or elective course, but without immediate practical application. Library language is a language that mainly functions as a tool for further learning through reading, especially when books or journals in the desired field of study are usually not published in the student’s native language.
An auxiliary language is a language that students need to know for any official function in their immediate political environment or will be needed for wider communication, despite to the fact that their first language meets all other requirements in their activities. Other languages with limited or narrowly specialized functions of the “second” language are called languages of a special orientation (such as, for example, French for hotel management, English aviation technology, Spanish for agriculture and many others), and their study usually focuses only on a small set of functions and uses due to specialization .
In the question of the description of methods, the difference between the philosophy of teaching a language at the level of theory and principles and the set of derived procedures for teaching a language is fundamental. Trying to clarify this difference, the American linguist Edward Anthony in 1963 proposed a scheme in which he established three levels of conceptual representation and organization, called the approach, method, and technique. The original model proposed by Anthony was complemented by modern scholarly linguists. So the method is theoretically was assigned to the approach, by organization defined by the plan (design), and is practically implemented in the process (procedure).
Oral approach and situational language training
British linguists of the 1920s had a different view of the specific methods that should be used when teaching English, however, their general principles were attributed to the Oral approach in teaching the language. By the 1950s, the Oral Approach had become an officially recognized UK approach to teaching English. One of the most prominent followers of the Oral Approach in the 1960s was Australian George Pittman. He and his colleagues were responsible for developing training materials based on a situational approach that has been widely used in Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific.
In the 1960s, the term “situational” began to be used more and more widely in relation to the Oral approach . The theory of situational language learning is based on a behaviorally driven theory based on learning through habit. She mainly refers to the process, rather than to the learning environment. The student is expected to apply the knowledge gained in the classroom to situations outside of the classroom. The goals of this method are to teach practical skills in four basic language skills, goals that almost all language teaching methods share.
Accuracy in both grammar and pronunciation is fundamental, and errors should be avoided at all costs. Activities in the context of situational language training continue to be part of the standard set of procedures approved by many modern British methodologists. Textbooks written based on situational language training continue to be widely used around the world. But due to the fact that the principles of situational language teaching, with their emphasis on oral practice, grammar and sentence structures are consistent with the intuition of many practice-oriented teachers, this method has remained widely popular in the 1980s.
However, there are many similarities between situational language training and the audio-speech method. The order in which language skills and competencies are presented, as well as the emphasis on accuracy that is achieved through exercises and practice based on the basic structures and models of sentences, suggest that these two methods originated from one another.
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