According to B. T. Likhachev, environmentally irresponsible behavior is a consequence of a person’s insufficiently developed need for practical participation in environmental protection .
Therefore, the formation of environmental consciousness and behavior in unity among schoolchildren must begin as early as possible.
According to the Federal State Educational Standards, the main task of the educational process is the formation of a comprehensively educated, proactive and successful person with a system of modern worldviews, value orientations, ideological, moral, cultural and aesthetic principles and norms of behavior . Based on this definition, we can distinguish the main aspects developed by geography in high school, namely:
1) Awareness of oneself is part of a single society, both on a national and global scale.
2) Awareness of the indivisibility of the geographical space of the Russian Federation as the place of residence of its peoples.
3) Awareness of the importance of modern environmental problems for Russia and the whole world .
The environmental education system consists of the following links:
– environmental education in the family;
– environmental education in preschool institutions;
– environmental education at school (in academic and extracurricular activities);
– environmental education in day care centers;
– environmental education in summer camps;
– environmental self-education .
The school is the main link in the education system, where people with creative thinking and universal morality should be brought up. Hence the need arises to find ways and solutions to the problems posed by time. In a secondary school, environmental education is interdisciplinary and is examined from the perspective of the specifics of many subjects: natural history, geography, biology, chemistry, etc. However, school geography, in comparison with other academic disciplines, is more ecologized.
According to Federal State Educational Standards, in the system of work of the class teacher, the following Universal Educational Actions can be distinguished and developed:
- Personal — connect learning with personal goals and motives of the student. These include:
a) the formation of a world outlook on the world from natural science positions;
b) understanding and acceptance of humanistic and global values;
c) awareness of their unity with other citizens of the Russian Federation.
- Cognitive — actions designed to obtain the information necessary for the activity. This is the ability:
a) to develop cognitive interests, intellectual and creative abilities;
b) be able to simulate the proposed system;
c) the ability to build a statement.
- Communicative — help to carry out various joint activities. These include:
a) be able to hear and listen;
b) be able to express their thoughts;
c) prevent conflict situations .
The most effective means of environmental education and training is the diverse activities of children (educational, cognitive, artistic, creative, play). A special role is played by the environmental activities of schoolchildren. Its types are diverse:
– on the protection of the natural environment (feeding animals; saving animals in need; fighting litter; making bird feeders and houses, installing signs in places where protected plants are distributed);
– on the prevention of evil deeds in nature and the fight against them (participation in the «green» and «blue» patrols, raids in nature);
– to improve the natural environment (planting, landscaping slopes, clearing the forest from dead wood);
– on propaganda and clarification of the ideas of environmental protection (conversations with friends, parents, adults, making posters, issuing wall newspapers, preparing radio programs);
– on the conservation and use of aesthetic values of nature (collection of natural material, the manufacture of panels, crafts from natural material).
Modern ecological culture in Russia is characterized by:
a) low environmental knowledge;
b) low satisfaction with information in the environmental sphere, perception of the environment as unsuitable for life;
c) the expectation of ill health;
d) reduced life expectancy due to the state of the environment;
e) the conviction that the environmental situation will deteriorate, and that it is necessary to adopt tougher environmental legislation and more stringent measures against environmental pollutants .
The most powerful tool for the formation of ecological culture is precisely the latter. Campaigns on excursions to local history museums, weather stations, environmental laboratories, and especially independent organizations of schoolchildren, such as the «green patrol», are a powerful way to show children in practice what it means to be an environmentally cultured person, explaining this, including by example.
Municipal budget educational institution Secondary school in Russkaya Khalan, Chernjanskiy district of the Belgorod region, like many other rural schools, is one example of a sociological model of society. This is a special link sociological system with inherent problems that concerned residents of the village. The rural school has always had importance for the survival of the village: demographic — the problem retain young people in rural areas, economic — capacity building of the village, she prepares future owners of the land, i.e. rural schools and the means of revival of the village. Today, the reality is that every rural schoolboy with his experience of life, a concept that thoughts interfere in the life of the village for the implementation of their plans and ideas. Hence the main direction of our school, says the Deputy Director for Education Bykova Natalia Dmitrievna — civil-Patriotic education of schoolchildren, the main component of which is environmental education. She believes that environmental education is the most important in our time. The education of children a responsible attitude towards nature is a complex and lengthy process. It must be not only mastery of specific knowledge and skills, and the ability and desire to actively protect, enhance, ennoble the natural environment. Forms of education are the specific activities or means of the educational work (interviews, meetings, evenings, excursions), the student activities (academic classes, subject groups, contests, Olympics). Are used with the aim of fostering environmental awareness in the educational process of ecological-psychological training, integrated-search, group and role-play, creative therapy, brainstorming, simulation, aimed at actualization of personal involvement, emotional sphere, the formation of the motives of the environmental content that provides systematization of worldviews students.
Some researchers identify this classification of methods of environmental education:
- Methods of formation of consciousness (the belief, exercise, example)
- Methods of creating a positive experience in the process of life: (experience, introspection, awareness)
- Methods of rewards and punishments: (business games, trainings, etc.)
Education of the individual is, along with learning the most important function of the education system. The contents of environmental education of the students absorbed in their various activities. Each of the forms of organization of educational process encourages different types of students ' cognitive activity: independent work with different sources of information allows to accumulate factual material to reveal the essence of the problem; the game shapes the experience to make sound decisions, creativity, allows you to make a real contribution to the study and conservation of local ecosystems, the promotion of valuable ideas.
- Likhachev B. T. Ecology of personality // Pedagogy. — 1993. — No. 2.
- The methodology of education and ecology in the XXI century / Abstracts of the scientific-practical conference. — St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after A. I. Herzen, 2012.
- Nikolina V. V. / Formation of students' emotional-value attitude to nature in the process of teaching geography // Scientific and methodical journal «Geography and Ecology in the School of the XXI Century, Moscow 2009
- Stupnikova A. D., Brazhnikova L. V.... «Reference teacher of geography» Volgograd: «Teacher», 2013.
- Kamerilova, VV Nikolina, V. M. Smirnova; Ed. A. A. Kasyana. — M.: Education, 1997
- Federal Law «On Education in the Russian Federation» dated December 29, 2012 N 273-ФЗ