The article discusses the main idea of educational system and crucial role of newly developed ITs with leading-edge ideas, techniques and methods used in teaching process is also studied. Particular focus is directed to efficiency of application of Corpus linguistics in education.
Keywords: corpus, concordance, synchronic, diachronic, obsolete words, historicisms, neologisms, index, indicator.
The twenty-first century is characterized as the age of IT development that became an integral part of the life of all. Technologies invented by humanity provided unlimited opportunities and have driven a social progress. As a result of the breakthrough, a great quantity of facilities has become available in the domain of economy, education and other fields. Social and spiritual life of people has also remarkably been changed.
Digital learning was initiated when the first PCs were primarily used in the US and UK schools in the early 1980s. Hence, the intervention of digital technologies into the sphere of enlightenment was firmly sustained and even extended beyond these countries to nearly all parts of the globe. Up to now, Computer Science has become an integral component of education.
The integration of technology and science with teaching was unsurpassed privilege of educational domain that caused a phenomenal growth in delivery of information and unfolded infinite opportunities for the future advancement. Consequently, the majority of HEIs across the world has embraced the advantages of DTs and began to apply newer technological devices in teaching process.
Studying via DTs can provide a great quantity of facilities such as diversification and enrichment of the educational process in accordance to students’ individual interests, simplifying the implementation of intricate multi-objective assignments, economizing precious time, reducing overlearning stress (through gamification or convergence of entertainment and knowledge acquirement), clarifying abstract concept by means of 3 D images, transcending time and space boundaries.
Assuredly, we can say that the transformation of education is occurring universally.
Nowadays, a number of languages has their own corpuses. Availability of corpuses serves to drive person’s scientific (research-based) abilities. Corpus use provides plenty of conveniences and facilitates human lives, likewise, it is time economizing. Therefore, it can be beneficially used both by philologists and other scientific researchers. Corpus-based linguistics seems to be relatively new in the field of computational linguistics.
Computer linguistics, which is considered to be the part of applied linguistics, appeared in the United States in 1960. The first corpus-based project was founded in America in 1961–1964. The full name of it was Brown University Standard Corpus of Present-Day American English. It contains one million word usages. The authors of the Corpus, Professor Nelson Frances, and linguist Henry Kucera composed a corpus of 500 texts that met the requirements and were structured according to a specific structure. The implementation of this method was a revolution in linguistics in the twentieth century. The appearance of the corpus-based method spawned the interest to various studies. The works of Nelson Frances, Henry Kucera justified themselves: creation of the corpus opened the way for major reforms in 1969, based on this corpus, American linguists compiled American Heritage Dictionary — (a huge volume dictionary of high level). In 1970–1978 the Lancaster Hull-Osto/Bergen corpus-based dictionary was created. It included a million words of use. After this corpus was set, scientists were convinced that it was necessary to create corpuses for all other sorts of linguistic analyses where the number of words, collocations exceeds one million. In 1975, the London-Lund Corpus was the first corpus, including oral texts. It was compiled electronically by programmers, enriched with audio materials, similarly, Lund Corpus was the first computerized corpus dictionary. Various types of it have been created owing to the IT development.
Corpus linguistics does not have much in common with ordinary texts. In fact it is a huge source of intentionally gathered texts included almost the whole lexical and grammatical structures of the language. These texts facilitate the implementation of various language analyzes, such as morphological, syntactic, phonetic analyses. Since each word is in the body of the corpus, there is an index due to which part of the speech (independent characters, auxiliary words), syntactic functions of the word (main parts, secondary words), are as well as other language features that are identified automatically due to the new feature of recent corpora types. Besides these there are included concordances (combination of words going always together) in the corpus. In the latest modern corpuses there is also given detailed data to words that shows their actuality and non-actuality (historic words, archaisms or neologisms) and other static indicators.
At the present time the sphere of corpus linguistics focuses on further advancement of corpora resources and on the creation of various corpora types to appeal more users. There were set such following corpus types as oral and written corpora, sample corpora (static) and monitor corpora (dynamic), bilingual and multilingual, synchronic and diachronic ones. Apart from them, there are peculiar types of corpuses which comprise extracts of all books of one author. And also there exists historical-linguistic corpuses, they involve texts and different types of redactions of one period, long-term or short-term times.
Recently corpus-based technique has been improved sufficiently. Modern corpus contains more than 1 million words of use and includes a great deal of written and oral texts. The latest models are set to be annotated and presuppose other users’ performance in experiments on the corpus through corpus managers.
Corpus-based method could enable many people with an opportunity to acquire deep knowledge and become more efficient. The use of corpus in the field of education would help our future generation to become competent and highly skilled specialists in such a demanding world.
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