This article discusses the experience of using ICT in computer science lessons in secondary schools. Examples of the use of web quests, integrated lesson, Internet services, e-learning resources.
Key words: ICT, web-quest, an integrated lesson, Internet services, computer testing, e-learning resources.
For modern schoolchildren, the use of information technology has become a part of their daily life. In this context, the task of the teacher is to apply the enthusiasm with which children use the computer at home, playing, doing creative work or texting with friends, to form an integral system of universal knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as to gain experience of independent activity and personal responsibility of students — in other words, to form key competencies that determine the current quality of education content.
The ability to take practical action appears in situations where the student gains experience in solving problems that initially do not have a ready-made solution. Most of these situations are observed in the organization of project activities in the form of a web quest.
The use of this technology helps to increase the motivation of students to self-study, the development of their educational and cognitive interest, the formation of EEL? That meets the requirements of the GEF.
Each web quest covers a separate issue, topic. Web quests are divided into short-term and long-term tasks according to the duration of their execution.
A web quest «Personal computer” was developed for students of the 8th grade.the goal of this quest is to arouse students ' interest in the components of a personal computer for certain users.
At the first stage, students are introduced to the topic of the web quest. So that students have a clear idea of what they will be working on and what results they should achieve. This stage is carried out in the classroom under the strict guidance of the teacher.
After getting acquainted with the topic of the web quest, students go to the second stage — choosing roles based on their interests and inclinations. The following roles were developed for the personal computer web quest: housewife, gamer, programmer, student, and webmaster. At the same stage, students were introduced to the tasks and questions.
At the third stage, students studied Internet resources, collected the necessary information and performed creative work.
The fourth stage was the creation of a joint presentation. Each subgroup placed its own personal computer information for a specific user on the slides.
At the fifth stage, the project was protected. Students demonstrated a high level of knowledge on the studied material. The overall result of the work of all participants of the web quest was participation in the scientific and practical conference of the school.
Thus, the web quest forms competencies based on the use of ICT, increases the motivation of students to self-study, promotes the development of their communication skills, and the realization of their creative potential.
The use of ICT in the educational process at school is the use of not only new technical means, but also new forms and methods of teaching, new approaches to the learning process. The use of ICT in combination with innovative pedagogical technologies can be considered on the example of an integrated lesson in computer science and literature. The lesson is dedicated to introducing students to the great personality F. M. Dostoevsky. The lesson uses Google technologies and the Internet space of a modern student, which allows forming the ICT competence of students.
At the first stage of the lesson, students were asked to think about the questions: what is the mystery of Dostoevsky? What will he look like today? The social network Vkontake, which is familiar to them, has become a tool for helping students. They were asked to fill out a simulated page on behalf of F. M. Dostoevsky, using fragments from various literary sources. Students are divided into groups and each group receives a set of materials: a description of the appearance, a biography of the writer, instructions for making a sketch in the Faces program, instructions for group work.
In general, each group studies literary sources with a biography of F. M. Dostoevsky, creates his sketch and fills in a pdf file of the simulated page «Vkontakte», presents their work to classmates. In the course of such a lesson, it became clear that Dostoevsky was different for all groups, but only after listening to the speeches of all participants, a complete image of the writer was formed.
The use of ICT in lessons in grades 9 and 11 has become an integral part of educational activities not only in computer science, but also in other subjects of the school curriculum. When studying certain topics in the school curriculum that are included in the OGE task codifier, the teacher actively uses the Internet services «Pass the GIA» and «Online preparation for the use and OGE». Students open the saved portal bookmarks, open the test created by the teacher, perform it, and then jointly analyze the errors made when solving problems.
The development of computer tests and the creation of automated training tasks are important areas of ICT implementation in the educational process. The advantages of computer control of knowledge can be considered efficiency in obtaining the result, which reduces the time for verification, as well as the objectivity of the assessment that the test subject receives. The presence of small tests allows you to use the computer in the classroom almost always, even when studying theoretical questions.
In computer science lessons, electronic educational resources are considered that allow describing the social and economic development of individual regions of the Russian Federation and the country as a whole. When studying the topics «Communication technologies», «Information technologies in society», «Spreadsheets», various data from the Rosstat website are used without much effort: www. gks.ru. Consideration of individual functions of the Rosstat Internet portal fits well into the study of the topic «Databases».
The use of ICT tools makes the process of teaching modern schoolchildren more interesting, simple and effective. The use of ICT allows to develop the orientation of students in the modern digital world, creates favorable conditions for better understanding of teachers and students, their cooperation in the educational process.
The process of education in a secondary school is a purposeful, consistently changing interaction between the teacher and students, during which the tasks of education, upbringing and General development of students are solved . The use of special information technologies affects the process of perception of educational material, and ultimately affects the effectiveness of the educational process. Information technology is a process that uses a set of tools and methods for collecting, processing, storing, and transmitting data to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, process, or phenomenon . The evolution of information technologies used by people leads to changes in the content of the educational process. Let's look at the stages of information technology development in more detail: the Manual stage began with the invention of writing.
Forms of data recording that are inherent in this stage: rock paintings, hieroglyphs on clay tablets, alphabet symbols on parchment or paper. Used tools: stylus (metal stick) brush, quill pen. Existing methods of recording data — applying the record to the data carrier manually. The mechanical stage began with the invention of printing. Data entry forms that are inherent in this stage: start printing on sheets with subsequent binding. A printing press was used as the main tool. The way to record data is to apply characters to media using a printing press. The electric stage began with the invention of the Telegraph, telephone, and radio. Forms of data recording inherent in this stage: entering data into the receiver, converting to a signal, transmitting the signal over a distance, restoring the signal to the message in the receiver. Tools: Telegraph apparatus, telephone, radio receiver, radio transmitter. Method of recording data: recording devices fix the receiver.
The computer stage began with the invention of an electronic computer. Form of data recording: magnetic recording on disk or tape, a laser recording on a CD. Tools: computer and related software. Data recording method: magnetic or laser recording. Currently, the educational process in secondary schools is characterized by the use of information technology «computer» stage. There are a number of features that must be taken into account when using modern information technologies in the educational process of a secondary school. They relate primarily to the organization and control of mental processes: perception, attention, memory, etc.
Their main part is grouped around the main channels of information perception (visual, audio, and kinesthetic).
Audio channel. We can distinguish the following main types of sounds perceived by a person: speech, music, ordered periodic and one-time signals, characteristic and random noises. The most important role among these types of sounds is played by speech, which should take an important place in the organization of the use of information technologies in the educational process. Natural and artificial noises are second in importance in human life. Studies have shown that a person deprived of noise becomes less active and feels psychological discomfort . Therefore, noise should also take its place in the learning process.
Traditionally, music plays a significant role in a person's life. Studies conducted in schools have shown that with a constant background of music, the performance of students increases on average by about 20 % . According to the degree of preference, there are four main groups of people: those who love marches, prefer waltzes, those who want to listen to tango, and fans of fast tunes like shake. These preferences are associated with dominant brain rhythms. Therefore, in the educational process, you need to provide at least four different types of melodies. Ordered periodic and one-time signals, such as phone calls, alarm sounds, attention-grabbing beeps, encouraging-pleasant or punishing-unpleasant sounds, usually play a distracting, mobilizing, informative and rarely neutral role. Purposeful and systematic use of such signals can be a useful addition to the system of sound effects on the student.
The kinesthetic channel. Modern information technologies used in the educational process at the present time allow using the kinesthetic channel only within a limited framework. However, there are several areas where the use of this channel is not limited to interaction with the computer keyboard: the use of a microphone when learning languages, etc.; the use of graphic tablets or musical keyboards in humanitarian subjects; the use of LEGO sets in the course of technology, as well as in courses of physics, chemistry, biology, etc.; the use of measurement laboratories for computer research on the material of physics, chemistry, biology, etc. These examples are characterized by the fact that computer technology is used in physical, not just organizational, communication with other external devices. With these external devices, the student not only performs actions with his hands, but also manages them using a computer.
Visual channel. Human visual perception of objects has a number of features .
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