The article provides a general analysis of the construction object life cycle. At the planning stage, the time required to create a calendar plan that indicates the acceptable run-time and additional time in case of unforeseen factors must be precisely determined. Also, the optimization methods should not be forgotten that help to plan the process of performing work without equipment downtime.
Keyword: Life cycle, planning issues, building codes, optimization methods, restrictions, optimization.
The construction industry is currently one of the most dynamic, labor-intensive and energy-intensive on resource spend in industry, as in terms of human factor, monetary and technical . Any stage of construction, starting with the most basic — for example landed work and ending with the final stages such as finish indoor spaces requires a large economic base. Since the customer needs to build a building, structure or any object, he will be interested in the following issues that will arise during the planning :
− Determination of construction terms and an attempt to minimize them
− Determination of material and labor costs on each stage of construction
− Determination of the main technical and economic indicators of the project
Planning the construction process is a difficult task, in which it is necessary to make large calculations for a cost-effective result in which you can perform more work.
Knowing the stages of the product life cycle, the company has a concrete idea of how soon the product will be released and what target audience. In “Fig. 1” presents a general view of the product life cycle .
Fig. 1. The life cycle of the construction project
At the stage of collecting information, it is necessary to conduct an analysis of the subject area, which will determine the most optimal version implementation of the project and compare the needs of the audience with the capabilities of the organization. At the planning stage solves the main problems of product development . If certain deadlines and rules are not followed in process the work, this can lead to large monetary losses. At the stage of drawing up the terms of reference, a document is compiled that sets out the main goals of the project development, requirements for it, regulated the terms, and stages of construction are.
Since project planning is a rather difficult task, one of the key points is the selection of resources. Every selection will be unique for each construction object because each object has its own conditions inherent in it, such as technological, organizational methods and the restrictions that arise during their execution as well as the availability of a resource base to ensure that customer need, and requirements in terms of time, cost and quality been completed.
However, the duration of the work can often be reduced, by high costs, if the prerequisite is precisely the time of the construction object, as many works can be carried out in parallel, thereby accelerating the overall progress of construction. The goal of the work at this stage is to create a schedule of work that will bring the project to a faster time finishing, low cost, achieve maximum profit or avoid problems that can somehow limit the work.
There are quite a few mathematical methods of optimization; these include: task of scheduling theory, task of search, task of distribution, task of queues, task of replacement .
Distribution tasks help to rationally distinguish available resources with upcoming work. This method solves such issues as: minimizing total costs and maximizing the benefits, efficient distribution and management of resources. Search tasks come down to finding methods to minimize the total amount of expenses. She is used in the analysis of economic activity of a construction organization.
The tasks of the section of scheduling theory appear always and everywhere where there are deadlines and a certain order of work. This theory main focuses on distribution optimization issues. When solving problems, two main objects are always distinguished — a device and a requirement. As the device may appear: machine tools, construction equipment, classrooms, etc. Requirements can be presented as a customer, director and computer programs .
The process of functional maintenance of the system can be described by setting schedules of the calendar plan or by a temporary totality indicating relative to what particular requirements, by which device are serviced at each moment of time. Replacement tasks need to be solved at material wear of the equipment, the characteristics of which wear out during operation, fail when performing a long work cycle. With prolonged use of the facility, there is a large cost for repair or a complete replacement of the necessary part. The replacement task is used to establish the timing and order of replacement. To solve the given types of tasks, static, probabilistic methods and dynamic programming are used .
At the stage of examination, an expert commission that evaluates the quality of work and adopts an act on compliance with the basic requirements carries out a detailed study. Examination is the main and mandatory stage of any activity, because it should be evaluated at each stage of the stated requirements with the available result. In cases where it is impossible to obtain estimates due to the lack of a sufficient statistical or other base about factors, scenarios and events, as well as mathematical models, the method of expert assessments, which is based on obtaining generalized expert data, is used. A study is being carried out, which is the amount of mathematical methods and practical experience of experts .
After the project was planned, all measures taken to optimize the facility have been completed, the documentation is fully in line with the standards, and the customer and contractor have come to a common agreement on the economic and technological base, the construction object is being built and after that it is put into operation. The operation of the building is the use of the building for its intended purpose, in accordance with the rules and regulations. During operation, the building will wear out. Deterioration of construction projects consists in a gradual loss of the initial strength of structural elements. Repair of buildings — a set of measures aimed at maintaining or partial restoration of the initial technical operational qualities of a building or a separate structure .
At the end, we want to say that the planning of the construction process is a difficult task, for which it is necessary to determine the correct technical task that governs the basic norms and rules. To select the optimal solution, should be used mathematical methods of calculation and computer facilities. If you optimally allocate available resources, you can reduce the time of work, increase productivity and make big profits .
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