Social status of the Kazakh Diaspora in Turkey in the XX century in the 50s–90s | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Отправьте статью сегодня! Журнал выйдет 13 марта, печатный экземпляр отправим 17 марта.

Опубликовать статью в журнале

Авторы: ,

Рубрика: История

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №7 (297) февраль 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 17.02.2020

Статья просмотрена: 48 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Сайлан, Болат Санабайулы. Social status of the Kazakh Diaspora in Turkey in the XX century in the 50s–90s / Болат Санабайулы Сайлан, Г. Д. Чабденова. — Текст : непосредственный // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — № 7 (297). — С. 322-325. — URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/297/67477/ (дата обращения: 03.03.2021).



This article is considered Kazakh Diaspora’s migration’s moving history to Turkey two times in the 50–90s of the XX century and Turkish peoples’ help in historical-social status in order to simplify everyday difficulties, In the result of their help they were able to develop their crafts and could bring to their prosperity.

Thanks to numerous studies during this period in Turkey, the number of compatriots, generic composition, despite the fact that they were in another country, preserving traditional culture, preserving the unity of people, United for welfare, creating a variety of small businesses, traditionally preserved the traditions of our ancestors, by fabricating the skin, trading raised the economy not only of their families, but also the economy of the country in which they lived.

Keywords: diaspora, nationality, Kazakh, Turkish, social status, economy, profession, fabricate the skin, jewelry, agriculture, specialty

Today, thoroughly studying of ethnic history, socio-economic situation and structure, changes in the traditional and spiritual culture of our compatriots abroad, scattered in the process of full-fledged formation of the history of our country, is an urgent issue at the forefront. This should become an important tool in the formation of national life, spiritual values, traditional culture and art of the Kazakh people, especially in preserving the unity and integrity of the nation. Within this framework, some work has been done in the country. One of his first initiatives was the II Kurultai of the Kazakhs of the world. In his report, the first President of the country N. A. Nazarbayev emphasized that for Kazakhs around the world, the entire Kazakh people, the significance of Kurultai is huge and is a common spiritual value for all peoples-national identity, traditions and customs, testifying to the unity of our people. In this regard, the head of state noted that " this meeting is a clear evidence that our country has really achieved independence, turned into a civilized country, and is a clear evidence that our ancestors made dreams for many centuries. This Kurultai is a sign that the Kazakh people in the new Millennium are confidently marching as a single nation. For all of us, there can be no more happiness, no more joy, " he said. [1].

Comparatively, the number of Kazakhs in Turkey dominated than the number of Kazakhs in other countries. For this reason, it becomes important to study the history of the Kazakhs in Turkey.

There are no thoroughly researched studies about Kazakhs in Turkey. In particular, there so few studies in the 50–60s of the last century, especially about the life, activity, adaptation of Kazakhs in Turkey, and other materials. Some scientist-researchers fully explained in their collected sources about the first movers to the Turkish land. So far, foreign scientists who provided information about the Kazakh Diaspora in this region have included Swiss scientist Ingvar Svanberg [2], Godri Lias [3], from domestic researchers G. M. Mendikulov [4], Turkish scientist, compatriot Abdlukap Kara [5], K. B. K. Kalshabaeva, A. K. Beisegulova [6].

In Turkey, there are few scientists-historians, researchers who provide information about the Kazakhs. For example, a researcher of the history of Kazakhs on Turkish soil, doctor of historical Sciences, Professor of the University of art Mimar Sinan Abdlukap Kara in the work» migration of Kazakhs to Turkey " notes that the first study about the Kazakhs of Turkey was made by a researcher of Ankara Sagdat Shagatai. «Ms. Sagdat heard that in October 1952, a group from Kashmir came to Turkey when they were placed in a refugee home in Istanbul. In February of the following year, he arrived in Istanbul from Ankara and met Kazakhs under the leadership of Husain Taiji» [8, P. 5]. There are people among the nations who have witnessed the story. Details of the difficult years of history living in Turkey are provided by research intellectuals such as Omar Zhigit, Mansur Taiji, Abdulselam Malkosh, Abdrakhman Chetin, Abdiluakap Kara, and these facts have become a key part of our article.

For the first time, researchers consider the migration of Kazakhs to Turkish land since the 50s of the XX century, namely, 1951–1953.The first stream in these years is started by Kazakhs of the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomy in China. In the late 80's of the last century, Kazakhs who moved from Afghanistan and Iran moved to Turkey.The Kazakhs in this region (Turkey) went through many obstacles in history, first to China, then to Tibet, to India and Pakistan later on in 1951–1953. They become stabilized [p. 6, 3]. Abdulakuqap Kara describes their (Kazakh) main homeland as «moving from the East Turkestan region of Altai, Barkol, Sauan, Gakkol, passing first to Gansu, Shynkai and then passing through the Himalayas and Taklamakan Desert» to India via Pakistan. [5] According to this opinion, the Kazakhs moved through East Turkestan to China, through China, through the localities of Gansu, Shanghai, moved from the territory of Tibet, India and Pakistan and moved to this Turkey. In Istanbul, in areas such as «Zeytinburnu», «Kucuk Chekmedji», «Safra-koi», «Ornektepe», many Kazakh families are settled, which today have become a source of traditional culture and art of the Kazakh people in Turkey. Although initially the territory inhabited by Kazakhs, was given the name «Kazakhkent» that is», Guneshli», meaning» sunlight».

According Abdilwkhab Kara, about the migration of Kazakhs to Turkey is described as follows: «in Turkey, the Kazakhs twice moved to Turkey. The first migration — In 1938, in the manual of warriors of Elishama and Saipa. In the aftermath of the Chinese invasion of Chinese troops, they crossed Tibet and the Himalayas, and reached India in 1941. The second migration was moved ten years later by the Mau Zydun Revolution. This migration was headed by Kalibek akim, Sultansharip Zuka batyr his son, Kusain Taiji, Dalelkhan Zhanatay. These two simultaneously migrated to Turkey. While the first nomads were traveling from India to Pakistan, they called for the creation of the East Turkestan Kazakh Refugee Society, and in their name, to migrate to Turkey. Their application was filed in March 1952.

So, last leaving migrated people following previous, they reached Turkey. The migration of Kazakhs in Turkey lasted from 1952 to 1954. Their total number was about 2,000 people. " [7] According to the above data, the first migration of Kazakhs to Turkey began in 1938 and covers the years 1952–1954. Our study examines the social situation of these 50s and 60s of the twentieth century, namely the early resettlement.

So, our compatriots relocate to Turkey from three territories. The first group from 1928 to 1938. From China, surpassing Tibet, India, and Pakistan, 1951–1956. Altai Kazakhs who arrived in Turkey. The second group is Afghan Afghani Kazakhs from the Russian-Afghan war in the 1980's. The third group is formed by Kazakhs, Afghans from Iran during these periods.

Abduluakap Kara, a historian, who looked at the history of Kazakhs in Turkey in more detail and using specific sources, said: «Compared to the Kazakh diaspora in different parts of the world, the happiest diaspora can be said to be Turkish Kazakhs. After all, Turkey has always been sympathetic to the Kazakhs, who consider it to be a relative. Therefore, the Kazakhs in this country did not experience any kind of alienation, training or ethnic oppression. Even, about Kazakhs who came from Central Asia local citizens told about them like new, with clean pure soul and with clean blood and highly regarded as true Turkic people, for these reasons it can be said openly that the Turkish government supported the resettlement and settlement of Kazakhs by agreement. [5]. In particular, from 1952 to 1954 the Kazakhs were received by the Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, who resettled them in Zeitburun, Serkezhi and Tuzla districts [pages 6, 40]. This is stated in a number of narratives in the articles of Abdullahakap Kara's «Thanksgiving to Adnan Menderes» [8], «There is a nation in Turkey» [9].

The historical details about the history and social life of the Turkish Kazakhs are oral. This may include the oral data of the Kozhan Elder's elder. Abdulakup Kara recorded the information of Kozhan the elder in 2004 on a tape recorder. In general, the source we rely on is Kozhan Sekeyevich, starting with a migration that started in Eastern Turkestan in 1937.In the middle of the organization led by a migrant who traveled to Turkey in the 1950's. In the article «Migration of Kazakhs to Turkey», Abduluakap mentions other valuable information, starting with the migration of Kara Kozhan Sekeyevich to Turkey.For example, the idea of moving to Turkey was said: «In the meantime, 'anzhiman'», we created in Peshawar. The reason we created the anzhiman was that we would send our application for Turkey to the government agencies» [11]. This established society is called «East Turkestan Kazakh Refugees», with its chairman Kusman Zaipovich, secretary Khalifa Altai, and vice chairman Kamza Zhakiyevich, followed by 11 members. On March 13, 1952, the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkey passes Decision No. 3/14595 to permit the migration of East Turkestan and Kazakh refugees from Turkey to India, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The special document will be signed by Turkish President Jalel Bayar and 16 Turkish government ministers headed by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. On September 24, 1952, a list of 102 Kazakh refugees was compiled at the invitation of the Turkish Government to settle permanently in Turkey. [9]. The order was issued in the words of Khoja Elder, «Six months later», the Government has welcomed you. You have been taken as a refugee to Iskandy. «Here the term» Iskan «means» all the costs of migrating will be borne by the state and will be provided with your accommodation after your trip to Turkey. «Thus, the Kazakhs who first moved to the Turkish land were divided into districts according to the lands allocated by the government. Apart from the similarities in religion, religion, customs and culture, the support of the Turkish people to the Kazakh people was also significant. The climate was favorable, and the interest of the Turkic-speaking people in the country was evidenced by the fact that they began to provide free food, free housing, and specialties such as weaving, carpentry, sewing, and specialties. [7]. That is why Mustafa Shokai said that each Turkic-speaking population has two Homeland, one native and another Turkish.

On the adaptation of the Kazakhs to the Turkic country Kalshabaeva and AK Beisegulova is well described in the monograph «Turkish Kazakhs». As stated in this monograph, the Turkish Kazakhs, living in the conditions of the Turkish state, lived in the lands allotted to them by the Kazakhs, our Kazakh compatriots, for 5–6 years. But in the future, with a view to improving their living conditions and living well in the country, they started moving to Istanbul, a crowded shopping center. There our compatriots craft, trade, and collectively set up small factories and factories to adapt to local living conditions. [6, 43-бет].

The Swiss scholar I. Swanberg reports that from 1950 to 1958, 320 families from 796 people arrived from Pakistan in the Adapt village of Turkey voluntarily. To date, the number of Kazakhs in Turkey is unknown. According to some sources, the numerical difference is between 19,000 and 25,000, and is now 10,000 [12]. As we can see, the number of Kazakhs today increases slightly from 1950 to 1958.There are about 13,400 in the same district of Zeideburn in Turkey (there are also reports of a decline to 10,000, with 6,000 Kazakhs living in the Guneshli district) [13] in Sapagöy and Shekpenzer districts — 1,500–2,000 and in Izmir — 1,000 Kazakhs. According to the community center, there are 21,500–22,000 Kazakhs in Turkey [14]. According to this information, currently Turkey has the largest number of Kazakhs living in Istanbul, Zeytenburni and 450,000 houses in Guneshli, Istanbul.

Kazakhs In Turkey, from the 1950's until now, there are currently about 25,000 Kazakhs living according to the media. For example, 4680 families (23400 people) in Istanbul, 100 (500 people) in Salihli, Manisa province, 150 in 750 (750 people) in Altai village in Nide, 20 families (100 people) in Izmir and 20 families in Ankara. (About 100 people), with 30 families (150 people) in Konya [15]. After relocating to Turkey, the Kazakhs began to consolidate over their ancient tribal structure. Most of our compatriots who migrated to Turkey from 1950 to 1960 are Kazakhs of the Middle Juz and Junior Juz. Compared to the data from the later 1978–1979 years, the number of families of one Kerei clan was 594, of the eight tribes — 65 and of the Uakas families — 12.

Initially, the Kazakhs received support from the Turkish government and, accordingly, specialties, and they learned Turkish. Undertaking a particular specialty, he began working in the weaving, jewelry business, and working in the railroads, in the manufacturing industry. It can be seen that they later traded and resumed their businesses. We can also see that he was engaged in farming and agriculture activities. «The wheelchairs and fields were provided to 61 houses that have visited Konya. Up to 40 dakar per capita (translated from Turkish 1000 m2). We also requested that the government give us a tractor. We have no horse stock. We have no animal feed. [11, 97-бет].

According to our Turkish compatriot Mansur Tazhin, the Turkish government has granted 35,955 hectares of free land to newly arrived Kazakhs to engage in farming in such areas as Manisa, Konya, and Altai.Of these, only Kazakhs living in Konya engaged in farming. However, Kazakhs living in other regions were in dire straits. Prof. Abduakap Kara says of this: «In the second half of the twentieth century, it was not possible for Turkey to have cattle or migrate like in Altai. In these regions of Turkey, riding on camels and camels was not possible. At the same time, the Kazakh livelihood became more difficult. Even the common people, the leaders of the country, had to take care of the baby's money. They were trying to find a way to live without begging. Eventually, he could find a way to find bread, doing his craft and grandfathering. So a new life began. Crowns, shrubs, and thorns, formerly the leaders of the land, tanned. He took off the needle with needles, sewed gloves, a hat and a hat. They even carry a bag and a crate to sell those things that they sewed. In any case, finding a family-friendly job was successful. In time, they learned the customs, languages, and laws of the new country. The children were already educated in Turkish schools. In less than 10 years, the Kazakhs have regained consciousness in the Turkish land. " [11].

Studying the life of Kazakhs in Turkey, B. Kalshabayeva and A. Beisegulova write that since the 1960s, the Kazakhs have begun moving to larger cities, especially Istanbul, where Turkey is a trade center, and then Izmir, Ankara. In order to get income and support families, Kazakh youth went to menial work. Over time, they had created small businesses by combining money from 5–10 or even 30 people, producing leather products, plastics [6]. Thus, the Kazakhs who moved to a new place, built their way to survival. It is worth noting that in such a short period of time, our compatriots were seen like brought up as an exemplary nation and were an example for foreigners.

In 1950–1960, the life of the Kazakhs of Turkey was largely based on leather processing, tailoring, and trade. In some sources, when the Kazakhs were engaged in leather trade, the Turks had not yet mastered it, so the Turks mastered the production of leather processing, it was it was learnt and mastered 1.5 billion US dollars. there was information that the dollar is making a profit [16].

The Director of the Kazakh center told about the life of Kazakhs in Kony in 1955–1970. According to him, currently 300–400 Turks lived in Kony in the city of Ismir. The Kazakhs used materials provided by the state and built houses made of bricks. At first, he is engaged in agriculture, not keeping cattle. Together with 20–30 people sow wheat. In 1960, Kazakhs who moved to Europe began selling more fur clothing. In the 1970s, a leather jacket went out and started exporting it for export. [6, 54–55-бет].

According to sources, we know that our compatriots in Turkey were engaged in their own professions. They sew a yurt, went in for cattle breeding, keept horses and produced koumiss. For example, a quote from a man named Abdulmansur Akzhol says that, «Ten years ago I bought some land about 30 kilometers from Istanbul, bought land, horses, and other livestock, and set up yurts» [6, 55-бет].

Most young people in Turkey preferred to pursue their own profession rather than the work of the state. Opened their personal trade, comprehensively regulated the business, located in the center of the city. This phenomenon began in the 50–60-ies of the last century, at the beginning of 70s it is expanded. But, on the other hand, begins to confess the needs of young people since the 1980-ies. Children of Kazakhs are equally educated with the youth of a Turkic country, including lawyers, journalists, doctors, teachers, etc. b. It is pleasant to know that after studying the specialties, there is a growing number of qualified and qualified young professionals among them. The fact is that the Kazakh Diaspora in Turkey can be described as a Turkish citizen as a resident of that region. It is worth noting that representatives of our compatriots in the Turkic country, including the new generation, who later began to go to school, they opened their literacy in Turkish and quickly learned the language of colleagues of the Turkic country and then had more difficult situation. In accordance with the requirements of the time, they spoke fluently in English, German, and French, and they didn't know perfectly in the Kazakh language. Therefore, this issue should not be ignored. In order to understand and comprehend the honor and dignity of the native language in other countries, it is necessary to have an idea that each family absorbed the Patriotic spirit and fight for the future of the nation.

So, summing up the results of the study of the history of the Kazakhs to date, the world, including the largest number of Kazakhs in the history of the Kazakh Diaspora, has focused on their most important conditions as a social problem. The main tasks of the research scientists is to analyze social and economic and cultural, spiritual features of the country and to conduct thorough research to preserve the integrity of the nation. The situation of the Kazakhs in the Turkish country is one of the most important issues not only in foreign policy, but also in the country's direct communication of internal policy. Therefore, this topic does not lose its relevance, on the contrary, it has the great importance in maintaining and ensure the stability of the country, forming the basis of our historical, social, political and economic history for the preservation of the unity of our country and people.

References:

  1. Nazarbayev N. And. «The world Association of Kazakhs: 15 years».// Made a report at the II world Kurultai of Kazakhs.–Almaty, 2007. — 67–71, 76–78 б.
  2. Svanverg Ingvar. Kazakh Refuges in Turkey.A Study of Cultural Persistence and Social Change. — Upsal,1989. — 211 p.
  3. Lias Godfreu. Kazakh Exodus.London, 1956.– cit.p.9.
  4. Mendikulova G. М. Historical destinies of the Kazakh Diaspora. Origin and development. — Almaty: Science, 1997. — 264 с.
  5. Abdiluakap Kara. Kazakhs in Turkey and their history.// http://yenitrt.com/kazakh/bag-darlamalar/2017/12/02/turkiiadag
  6. Kalshabaev B. К., Beisegulov A. K. Turkish Kazakhs (ethnic history, ethnographic features). — Almaty: Kazakh University, 2013. -184 б.
  7. Asylbek Rakhatuly. From Altai to Anatolia. // The Kazakh country. — 1996. — № 42. October 18, page 2
  8. Abdullahakap Kara «Thanksgiving to Adnan Menderes// Turkestan. — 2012. — October 1.
  9. Abdullahakap Kara «There is one nation in Turkey». // Turkestan. — 2011. — September 1.
  10. Khalifa Altai. People from Altai. — Astana: Astana Polygraphy, p 2011. -278.
  11. Abdullahakap Kara. Kazakhs’ migration to Turkeyға (Old man Khozhan vizier’s oral facts) — Almaty: «Orkhon» publisher, 2016. — pages 136
  12. Svanberg I. Kazakh diaspora: Problems of ethnic survival. Almaty: Atamura, 1997. — 224.
  13. Meeting of great nation. Data collection // organised. Botagoz Uatkhan. — Almaty: The World Association of Kazakhs. «Ata-Jurt» publishing center. p-2012. — 408.
  14. Beibit Bojen’s interview with Dervish Kylysh. We will all return to our homeland // Aikym. — 2008. — July.
  15. http: // caspionet.kz
  16. Amandyk Korganuly. Kazakhs of India // Turkestan. — 2012. — 15


Ключевые слова

economy, diaspora, nationality, Kazakh, Turkish, social status, profession, fabricate the skin, jewelry, agriculture, specialty
Задать вопрос