Today, military education system of Kazakhstan, including the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan, the national army, the air force, and the naval forces were formed, which have become the most important pages in the history of a sovereign country. The national army has come a long way from the first military units to a constructive system of modern national defense and security.
First President of the country Nursultan Nazarbayev in his Message to the people: «The new Kazakhstan patriotism is the basis for the success of our multiethnic and multi faith society. Our main goal in this direction is simple and clear: we must preserve and strengthen public consent.This is a very necessary condition for life as our state, as a society, as a nation.The basis of Kazakhstan's patriotism — love for the Motherland, equality of all citizens and their shared responsibility.
The article discusses the formation of a military education system after the issuance of Presidential decrees «on the transformation of the State Defense Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, «On the Establishment of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan” and modern military education institutions.
Keywords: military, armed forces, national army, security, border, doctrine, education system, weapons, air force, national security.
In General, Kazakhstan, as an independent country, began creating its own army and military education system on may 7, 1992 after the publication of Presidential decrees «on the transformation of the state defense Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the Ministry of defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, «on the creation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan”. . On the basis of the territory of the country to calculate the age, the number of persons, the organization, the polygon, the base of the boundaries, the folds, the double and the lower boundary of the image of the Soviet Union in the competence of Kazakhstan. And one more than we should remember, on this day in the territory of the country, in the calculations of institutions, units, formations, organizations, training grounds, a storage base, warehouses, movable and immovable military property of the USSR Armed Forces, were transferred to the competence of Kazakhstan.
In this regard, in the issues of the modern development of the Kazakh army, new requirements and modern challenges were taken into account as much as possible. Attention was also focused on ensuring the active participation of the country in activities to comply with global and regional security. In order to successfully carry out these works, determine the modern nature of the Armed Forces, create its legal framework and implement other major tasks, the country's first military doctrine was adopted in February 1993 .
It includes the principles of the formation of the Kazakhstan army. This document allowed us to develop our army in a modern way. Subsequently, in February 2000, the second military doctrine was approved. He specified the priority areas for the formation and reform of the Armed Forces. And in the military doctrine, adopted in March 2007, it was determined to ensure the independence of the troops of regional commands in matters of solving military security tasks in certain regions.In particular, the achievement of the current level of the country's troops was made possible by fulfilling the tasks and priorities outlined by the Head of State in connection with the strengthening of the defense industry.Today, our Armed Forces are made up of three different structures. These are ground forces, air defense forces and naval forces. Their potential has been increased.
In the strategic plan, high-level military groups, special operational operational response teams for any risks, an information warfare component to counter threats in some space have been created to participate in solving the main problems in crisis situations.Also, to unite the area of territorial defense of the state, a command and control body for territorial troops was formed as part of the Armed Forces. With the coverage of all stages of formation, training of specialists through the country's military educational institutions has been established. At the end of 1991, about 200 thousand people were in the composition of the troops of the USSR Armed Forces on the territory of Kazakhstan.
First of all, it was difficult to solve the problem of a specialist. Since at the beginning of the formation of their army, many officers who served in Kazakhstan decided to continue or go to reserve in other CIS countries. In turn, the officers who served in the general army of the USSR went to their countries. Because of this, the rate of departure of officers over two and a half years, i.e. from May 1992 to January 1995, amounted to 89 % of the payroll. In this regard, there was a shortage of military specialists in the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan. The solution to this problem was unbiased. Therefore, special attention was paid to the training of qualified, professional personnel at the state level. As you know, the formation of a modern potential army is directly related not only to the improvement of military equipment and weapons, but also to the education of a professional, new military generation.In this regard, over 28 years, a system of training national military specialists has been formed in the country. Advanced technologies have been introduced into the educational process of educational institutions of a military direction, the training base has been expanded to increase the level of knowledge of specialists.
As a result, over the years of independence, our army was actually created, a new and whole generation of generals and officers of the country grew. If we dwell a little on the training of qualified, professional military specialists, it covers five levels stipulated by the Law on Education . These are secondary education, technical and vocational education — master's and doctoral studies, additional education — military department, retraining and advanced training. Secondary education is provided by the Zhas Ulan republican schools in the cities of Astana, Almaty, Karaganda and Shymkent. And technical and vocational education is presented by Sh.Ualikhanov cadet corps. After graduating from this educational institution, professional sergeants serve in various positions of the Armed Forces.Also, specialists of all types and branches of the Armed Forces are trained in 3 military universities. For example, the military institute of the Ground Forces has a special place in the training of personnel. More than 70 percent of the junior officers of the Armed Forces are graduates of this educational institution. Over the years of independence, more than 7 thousand officers graduated from the institute. About 70 graduates of the institute received the rank of general.
In addition, she praised the activities of the Military Engineering Institute of Radio Electronics and Communications, established in 2001 to train personnel in the field of information security, communications troops, automated control systems, and the Air Defense Forces.The Institute trained more than 1 thousand officers in 10 areas. Not to mention the fact that the Talgat Bigeldinov Institute of Air Defense Forces has a special place. This educational institution trains specialists not only for the Air Force, but also for the Border Service of the Ministry of the Interior and the National Security Committee.Today, about 2 thousand pilots and engineers specialized in their own affairs. In addition, the Naval Institute in the city of Aktau is actively involved in the training of personnel of the naval forces and naval units of the Border Service of the National Security Committee, naval, internal vessels and mixed vessel services of the civilian fleet of Kazakhstan.In addition, the National Defense University named after the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan — the Leader of the Nation makes a great contribution to the training of specialists. This university, which is an interdepartmental training center, annually graduates 100 officers.
It is worth noting that our future generals are leaving these officers. In addition, a faculty of the the Committee of national security border service was created at the university. The University has a worthy appreciation and recognition from the best universities in the world, is a member of the Association of Oxford and Eurasian Universities. The high status of the country's military education is also determined by the training of military personnel of countries such as Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in our military universities. To exchange experience, our military personnel also undergo training at foreign universities. Work in this direction is carried out due to the fact that special attention is paid to international military cooperation, in particular, interaction with troops of other countries and the exchange of experience.
In this regard, we can proudly say that our military units are constantly actively participating in the exercises within the framework of the SCO, CSTO and demonstrate their high level.Special attention in providing the industry with professional personnel is given to the preparation of a military-educational reserve. Education in this direction is conducted at 29 military departments at civilian universities. These military departments train more than 3,700 officers annually. In general, one of the main tasks is to develop the industry in accordance with modern standards and international experience in order to raise the quality of our Armed Forces to a high level.
Therefore, at present, the military education system is working on conscription and contract, that is, in a mixed way. As a result, more than 70 % of sergeants and soldiers are military personnel serving on a contract basis. The remaining 30 % are citizens who are required to fulfill military duty. This method of manning shows its effectiveness. This will increase the combat readiness and ability of the Armed Forces. It is worth noting that over the years of independence a lot of work has been done to provide our army with modern weapons and military equipment. The necessary new weapons and equipment were purchased.
In addition, previously existing equipment and military equipment were repaired and modernized. In particular, for the Ground Forces armored vehicles and armored transporters, modern radio-electronic equipment, rocket and artillery weapons, heavy firing systems, mobile communications systems, domestic vehicles for protection against radiation, chemical and biological threats, fuel and lubricants, field hospitals were purchased. The air defense forces were replenished with modern Su-30SM fighter aircraft, the best in their category S-295 military transport and training Zlin aircraft, EC-145, Mi-171Sh helicopters, and Mi-35M military transport helicopters. The technical fleet of the air defense system has been updated. To protect the borders of the airspace, S-300PS, S-200, S-125 anti-aircraft missile systems and Nur radio systems were installed.
As you know, Kazakhstan owns the longest part of the Caspian sea border. In order to ensure its security, a naval force has been created. Currently, the country has launched the release of military-important ships and vessels. For example, the Zenit plant in Uralsk, for the protection of the country's maritime borders, has today produced more than 25 ships and ships. Today they work at a high level for the good of the country. All this indicates that the Armed Forces are equipped with modern weapons and military equipment . In principle, the Armed Forces of the country over the years of independence have been formed at the proper level, and its further improvement in accordance with the requirements of the time does not stop. Therefore, the President — the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces sets great tasks for the country's army.
These tasks are aimed at: improving the military planning system, centralizing state and military command, continuing to develop a system for preventing possible missile attacks, strengthening the capabilities of the cybersecurity sphere, promoting the introduction of troops into automated command and control systems, weapons and resources in the Armed Forces, and other topical issues.
The country's defense system, including the military education system, is a system of government measures of a political, military, economic, social, legal and other nature to ensure the military security of the Republic of Kazakhstan, protect sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of its borders.The basic principles of state policy in the field of ensuring military security of the Republic of Kazakhstan are clearly and in detail reflected in the legislation of the country.It includes:
– respect for the sovereignty of other states, the inviolability of state borders, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states;
– strengthening confidence-building measures and openness in the military sphere;
– peaceful settlement of international disputes;
– maintaining friendly relations with all countries based on mutually beneficial cooperation and mutual understanding;
– compliance with international obligations to which the Republic of Kazakhstan is a party, and assistance in achieving the objectives of the treaties;
– participation in the creation of universal and regional security systems aimed at preventing military conflicts, maintaining and restoring peace.
The most important source of potential, the political, organizational and legal basis of the Armed Forces in the military education system of Kazakhstan is the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, who, in accordance with his competence, determines the following fundamental issues of the army’s life:Қазақстан Республикасы әскери саясатының негізгі бағыттарын айқындайды;
– Approves the military doctrine of the Republic of Kazakhstan, plans for the construction and development of the Armed Forces, other troops and military units;
– Approves the rules for the use of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the rules for operational equipment of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
– Approves a plan for the use of the Armed Forces, a plan for the operational equipment of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the interests of defense, as well as a state mobilization plan;
– Carries out general management of the Armed Forces, other troops and military units;
– Approves the structure, staffing limit of the Armed Forces, as well as the system of remuneration of employees and public servants, and implements other specific measures. .
The military security of the Republic of Kazakhstan is ensured by pursuing a policy of cooperation and good neighborly relations between states, their equality and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, peaceful resolution of international disputes, refusal to use the first armed force to justify the alleged threats, strengthening the military organization of the state, identifying and using the most effective forms and methods of strengthening the Armed forces.
At present, Kazakhstan has created three optimal structures of the Armed Forces, consisting of the Ground Forces, the Air Defense Forces, and the Navy. The ground forces included troops of four regional commands, as well as airmobile troops, missile forces and artillery. For the effective development of the arms of the armed forces — the Air Force and Air Defense Forces — the creation of an air defense force grouping has been completed, and the grouping of troops in the western strategic direction is being strengthened.
Today, the process of improving the planning system and interagency cooperation in matters of ensuring the military security of the state continues. The structure and development of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan is carried out in stages and systematically, which contributes to the creation of mobile, professionally prepared troops of constant readiness, designed to ensure the security of the individual, society and the state, to protect the rights and freedoms of man and citizen from criminal and other illegal encroachments.The border service of the National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan is improving the system of protection of the state border of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Five regional departments have been created: South, North, East, West, and Coast Defense. In the interests of the functioning of the Customs Union, measures are being taken to strengthen the protection of sections of the state border of the Republic of Kazakhstan .
Measures have been taken to improve and strengthen the state system for the prevention and liquidation of emergency situations, including the development of infrastructure to deal with natural disasters, accidents and disasters and their risk management system, equipping emergency response forces with the necessary emergency and rescue equipment, equipment, improving monitoring efficiency and forecasting.Under the Collective Security Treaty Organization, units of the Collective Rapid Response Force (CRRF) have been created. In the course of joint operational and combat training activities, their level of interaction is being increased. Through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Kazakhstan is actively involved in strengthening the organization’s counter-terrorism potential, including through participation in joint anti-terrorism exercises.In the interests of strengthening national and regional security, the sphere of military and military-technical cooperation with Russia, China, the USA and other states is expanding. However, in order to counter modern threats to military security in the context of aggravating the military-political situation in the world and the region, technical progress, improving forms and methods of warfare, it is necessary to constantly increase the effectiveness of the state’s military organization, which requires adjusting the state’s military policy and further developing the military security system.
Today, Kazakhstan has developed the military education system, including the armed forces of Kazakhstan, the National Army, the air force, naval forces, which have become the most important pages in the history of a sovereign country. The national army has come a long way from the first military units to the constructive system of modern national defense and security. As President N. Nazarbayev noted, equipped with modern weapons and equipment, the professionalism of commanders, high combat training and hardening of personnel, are the quality qualities that are characteristic of our military education system.
Over the years of independence, dramatic changes have taken place in the military system of Kazakhstan and a fundamentally new type of troops — the creation of autonomous naval forces. Its main task is to protect the inviolability, territorial integrity and economic interests of the borders of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea. Now the base of these forces is in Aktau. It includes maritime foot forces, coastal artillery and the Caspian flotilla with several medium security ships comprising dozens of military threats. Today, systematic and persistent work is being carried out to equip the Navy with new type of ships and bring their total strength to 5 thousand units. .
Currently, the state of the Armed Forces in the international ranking has improved from year to year. According to the Global Firepower rating in 2017, our army took 53rd place among all the troops of the world. But this is impossible not to sleep. Since continuous work to improve our army, taking into account global challenges and changes, is a requirement of the time. Since the defense of the Motherland is the most honorable and authoritative service, today the whole society is to increase the moral and patriotic spirit of such mechanisms in the military education system as protecting sovereignty and national security, protecting national interests.
In conclusion, an increase in opportunities for further development of the military education system, improvement in accordance with modern requirements, increased military training, as well as assistance in strengthening global security is not expected.
- «On the reorganization of the State Defense Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan as the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan», «On the Creation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan», 1992 Decree No. 738 of May 7 // PSPP of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1992, No. 18, Art. 279.
- The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On approval of the first military doctrine of the Republic of Kazakhstan»// 1993. Decree No. 1094 of February 11.
- «On the Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan» // Law of June 7, 1999 No. 389–1.
- «On the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan»// Law of January 7, 2005 No. 29.
- Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated October 11, 2011 No. 161 «On approval of the Military Doctrine of the Republic of Kazakhstan».
- Alexander Khramchikhin. A strong army for Kazakhstan is not a luxury, but a necessity // «APN Kazakhstan» 2, 09/06/18.