Interjection in Chinese language, communicative-pragmatic functions of interjections in Chinese and Uzbek languages | Статья в журнале «Молодой ученый»

Отправьте статью сегодня! Журнал выйдет 29 февраля, печатный экземпляр отправим 4 марта.

Опубликовать статью в журнале

Автор:

Рубрика: Филология, лингвистика

Опубликовано в Молодой учёный №4 (294) январь 2020 г.

Дата публикации: 29.01.2020

Статья просмотрена: < 10 раз

Библиографическое описание:

Ташмухамедова Д. А. Interjection in Chinese language, communicative-pragmatic functions of interjections in Chinese and Uzbek languages // Молодой ученый. — 2020. — №4. — С. 473-475. — URL https://moluch.ru/archive/294/63860/ (дата обращения: 18.02.2020).



This article is about the current issue of the functioning of emotions in the language, as well as how to highlight and describe them. There is still some inaccuracy in Chinese interjection, various scholars have discussions about the meaning, classification and the function of the interjection in the sentence. This paper discusses the opinions of different scientists and shows the differences and similarity of interjections in Uzbek and Chinese languages.

Keywords: interjection, formation, communicative-pragmatic functions, exclamation, structure, emotional interjection.

In the last some decades, linguists are focusing on the words indicating human emotion. Foreground areas have been formed in etymology, such as the typology of emotive signs that serve to fix various manifestations of emotions; the influence of the emotional type mind style on the formation of a linguistic picture of the world, the concept of an emotional linguistic picture of the world; national cultural specifics of emotions expression; criteria for the emotiveness of the language and its signs; correlation of linguistics and paralinguistic of emotions and some others. The relevance of the functional description of interjections is based on the insufficient knowledge of this grammatical class of words in both Chinese and Uzbek linguistics. In addition, both Chinese and Uzbek interjections have similar and differential functional characteristics, which are an important task to trace. Due to its intermediate position in the common system of significant and auxiliary parts of speech in both Uzbek and Chinese languages, as well as a fairly wide range of communicative-pragmatic functions performed, the class of interjections has not yet been fully defined. Chinese interjections have a number of differential and integral features with Uzbek interjections. For example, Chinese interjections, like Uzbek, are representatives of certain feelings, emotions, and wills of the speaker. Interjections in the Chinese language system are an invariable part of speech and do not function as a member of a sentence, they are always related to the sentence to which they are adjacent. This is their obvious functional and grammatical similarity with Uzbek interjections. At the same time, Chinese interjections have original functional and grammatical characteristics that allow us to talk about the differential parameters of this category of words in the classification aspects.

The functional approach focuses on comparing the functional, semantic and classifying characteristics of Chinese interjections of various ranks. Typology of interjection in Chinese language allows us to establish that these linguistic elements are able to represent not only a wide range of emotionally expressive characteristics, but also signs of logical operations of the subject, for example, expression of doubt, hesitation, reflection of the speaker, consent or disagreement of the author of the statement with the opponent, understanding the subject of the speech situation of communication, short answers to what was said, the authors of the expression of expression, depending on the situation of the use of interjection in communication.

The traditional linguistic approach defines interjection according to a grammatical aspect. In this regard, both Chinese and Uzbek interjections have similar status grammatical characteristics of non-significant and unofficial parts of speech of the corresponding language systems, which, from the syntactic point of view, do not perform grammatical-structural functions in the sentence structure. Due to these characteristics, in linguistic science, the classification of interjections by semantic attribute is widespread. In Linguistics, many linguists adhere to this approach — 马建忠MǎJiànzhōng [3], 王力Wáng Lì [4],黎锦熙 Lí Jǐnxī [5], and others. There are two ideas to the definitions of interjections in Chinese study. One in defined from semantics. 马建忠Mǎ Jiànzhōng, a Chinese linguist, said: “words which are used to express feelings of one’s mind are called interjections”. 马建忠 Mǎ Jiànzhōng classifies interjections according to their semantic attributes. The other is defined from its syntax characteristics. 王力Wáng Lì said: “the interjections are not parts of a sentences’ structure. They can be used to express a sound of exclamation, such as anger, surprise, sadness and so on. 袁毓林Yuán Yúlín [6] even described interjections as follows: “Interjections cannot be assembled with other words, but only a separate component”. He pointed out that interjections had no syntax relation with other words. It was often put in the beginning, sometimes in the middle, of a sentence”.

王力Wáng Lì by contrast, pays more attention to the syntactic features of Chinese interjections. The scientist writes: “Interjection is not part of the sentence structure, but only conveys exhalation, exclamation, and emotions, such as anger, surprise, sadness and the like”. Summarizing these two positions, 胡明阳Hú Míngyáng defines Chinese interjections as expressions that are used in oral speech, are independent and are not included in the sentence structure [7].

The authors of modern Chinese grammars take a different position, differentiating interjections by structural parameters. In particular, 胡明阳 Wáng Zìshǐ in his article “Parts of speech at the heart of a prototype system” describes interjection as “a part of speech that does not depend on other words in a sentence, being only one of the components of this sentence” [8]. The scientist notes that “interjection has no syntactic relations with other words in the sentence, often precedes the sentence, and sometimes is inserted in the middle of the sentence”. For example, in the sentence 门外传来喂, 喂的声音 (Ménwài zhuàn lái wèi, wèi de shēngyīn) — 'Behind the door was heard, «Hey, hey!"' Chinese interjection wei transmits information that someone is at the door of the house and wants to find out if there is someone else inside this object. At the same time, the phrase “Behind the door was heard” serves to enhance the utterance, to frame the basic information with additional semantic nuances.

The material presented is considered in the framework of the problems identified above and is an attempt to classify the interjections of the Chinese language in terms of their emotional manifestations. An analysis of the problem will allow further answers to questions related to the description of similarities and differences in understanding emotions in Uzbek and Chinese linguistic cultures in the communication process.

There are various classifications of interjections that focus on the characteristics distinguished in them: by origin, by structure and genetic relationship with groups of significant words, etc. In our work, we rely on classification according to the semantic principle, because it is by highlighting the semantic core that it is possible to compose an emotional field of interjections. In Chinese, as well as in Uzbek linguists, arguing about the partial affiliation of interjections, are united in one thing — interjections have the function of expressing emotions. Chinese linguists do not divide interjections into groups depending on the semantic sphere of use, unlike the Uzbek tradition, but conditionally in Chinese, all interjections can be divided into 3 areas of use: emotional evaluations, expression of will, etiquette.

In the process of studying the material of the dictionaries “现代汉语词典” Xiàndài hànyǔ cídiǎn (Modern Chinese Dictionary the following classification of interjections of the modern Chinese language was made:

1) Interjections expressing admiration, surprise, delight;

2) Interjections expressing consent, understanding, understanding;

3) Interjections expressing regret, grief, suffering, sadness;

4) Interjections expressing disagreement, denial, doubt;

5) Interjections expressing contempt, disgust;

6) Interjections expressing the question;

7) Interjections expressing appeal, attention-grabbing, shouting;

8) Interjections expressing irony, mockery. As a result, we were able to compose the emotional fields of interjections based on the sign of assessment. The result of the selection of interjections from the dictionary is as follows: 啊a; 诶éi; 嗬;喂wèi; 嗨hāi; 嘿hēi; 呦yōu;呸pēi; 啐cuì;哼hēng; 吓xià; 哎āi; 咳hāi;哎呦āiyōu;哎呀āiyā; 哦ó; 噢ō; 喔ō;呃è ;呀ya ;咦; 呦yōu; 哎呀āiyā; 妈呀噫mā ya yī、 吁、 唏、 也、 矣、 乎、 哉zāi、 嘻、兮、夫、呜呼wūhū.

References:

  1. 李德津外国人实用汉语语法 Lǐdéjīn wàiguó rén shíyòng hànyǔ yǔfǎ (Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners). — Beijing, 2008. — 399p.
  2. 现代汉语词典Xiàndài hànyǔ cídiǎn (Modern Chinese dictionary) — 商务印书馆创立115年纪念版/中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室编。—6版。—北京:商务印书馆、2012、1874页
  3. 马建忠MǎJiànzhōng 马氏文通(M) 商务印书 馆,1985
  4. 王力Wáng Lì中国语法理论 zhōngguó yǔfǎ lǐlùn (Theory of Chinese Grammar). - Taipei, 1987. – 374 p.
  5. 黎锦熙Lí Jǐnxī.新著国语文法Xīn zhù guóyǔ wénfǎ (New Chinese Grammar). – Beijing, 1992. – 443 p.
  6. 袁毓林Yuán Yúlín语言的认知研究和计算分析Yǔyān de rènzhī yánjiū hé jìsuàn fēnxī (Cognitive research and computational analysis of language) (M) 北京大学出版社,1998
  7. 胡明阳Hú Míngyáng俄汉语感叹词对比É hànyǔ gǎntàn cí duìbǐ (Contrast of Russian and Chinese interjections). – Liaolin, 1996. – 225 p.
  8. 王自笶Wáng Zìshǐ现代汉语虚词词典 Xiàndài hànyǔ xūcí cídiǎn (Modern Chinese vocabulary dictionary). –Shanghai, 1998. – 324p.


Задать вопрос