The article discusses the problems of assessing the quality of education in higher education. The author indicates the main directions of educational policy, which necessitate the development of objective systems for assessing the quality of education at a university, and also analyzes the results of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue.
Keywords: higher education, quality of education, a system for assessing the quality of education, criteria for assessing quality, reliability of assessment systems.
At the present stage of transformational changes related to the restructuring of the system of domestic higher education, the adopted system of standards updated the problem of guaranteeing the minimum quality of the content side of education. Some aspects of educational diversification have led to the emergence of specific mechanisms for the accreditation of higher education institutions, which entailed the artificiality and bias of formulating requirements that mediate the effectiveness of professional training of university students, as well as the need to develop systems for assessing the quality of education received.
As in other countries, in Uzbekistan higher education involves the training of qualified specialists for various spheres of public life and sectors of the economy — scientific, economic, technical and others. The educational process systematizes knowledge and acquired skills, orienting students to solve theoretical and practical problems in the vector of the chosen specialization with the creative use of the achievements of modern scientific thought and technology. The university system includes: Higher education institutions that implement academic and professional programs according to state standards, regardless of departmental subordination and form of ownership. Scientific and pedagogical institutions carrying out research work necessary for the development of universities. Government bodies of education, enterprises and institutions subordinate to them. The education system of Uzbekistan provides for two levels of certification: Bachelor's degree — a basic higher education that gives basic skills and sufficient knowledge in various fields. Duration of study is not less than 4 years. At the end of the program, the state commission awards graduates with the qualification “Bachelor” according to the profile of training and issues a diploma of the established form. Master is a higher education, which involves the development of applied and fundamental theoretical knowledge in the chosen specialty. The term of study is at least 2 years. Bachelors selected by competition have access to master studies. Upon graduation, graduates receive a diploma and a master's degree in a particular specialty. Diplomas of both degrees enable their holders to engage in professional activities or continue their studies in other educational institutions. In Uzbekistan, there are three types of higher education organizations: university — offers programs of higher education or postgraduate training in the widest range of specialties; Academy — is engaged in the implementation of pedagogical programs of higher and post-institute education in certain scientific fields and areas; Institute — works in the field of the implementation of higher education curricula and postgraduate training in certain areas and levels within the boundaries of a particular branch of knowledge.
The relevance of issues related to assessing the quality of education in universities is undeniable. In our country, this problem is of particular importance due to the fact that domestic education is undergoing significant transformations associated with the transition of Russian students to competency-based education. These transformations project the close attention of domestic psychological, pedagogical and other related sciences to solving the issues of independent assessment of the results of mastering by students of basic educational programs. It is known that the best world educational practices have reliable assessment systems based on certification. These systems are constantly updated, developed, improved. In our country, this process is still quite «slow and difficult» .
A number of scientists analyzing the issues under consideration concentrated their attention on such aspects as evaluation criteria quality of education, subjects of assessment, the final consequences of assessment for a higher educational institution, etc. Considering these criteria, scientists came to the conclusion that all of them (criteria) act as identifiers of the level of quality of education that students receive in these universities. The quality of education in a university, of course, should be consistent with the rating of the university itself [1; 4]. Analyzing the causes of the difficulties of assessing the quality of education, it is worth noting some specific features of the education itself, which are usually referred to as follows:
− the multidimensional quality of education itself, consisting of indicators such as the quality of the capabilities of educational systems, their impact on the effectiveness of education; the quality of the results themselves, etc;
− multilevel results revealing the degree of quality of professional training at various levels;
− multi subjectivity, reflecting an expanded range of individuals and institutions that are involved in assessing the quality of education;
− multi criteria, due to the presence of a number of quality criteria that ensure the objectivity of the assessment and many others .
Based on the fundamental principles of the humanitarian approach to education, quality management is considered as a special function of the university as a holistic self-organizing system, which consists in stimulating the subjective properties of the academic community, aimed at solving the problems of training competent specialists for the education sector. Managers impacts from leaders of all levels with this understanding are to create favorable external and internal circumstances for the effective work of teachers, students and other subjects of professional training.
As a result of the above, it can be said that the quality of education is a rather complex and multi-component concept, which determines the need for a qualitative solution to the problems of managing the quality of education itself and justifies the presence of a number of methodological and strategic aspects in it, such as structural, psychological, didactic, economic, social and adaptive, internal, external (productive side of education), assessment by the consumer, not included in the educational process, etc. It should also be noted that among the main criteria for assessing the quality of education, particular importance has become occupy an education level indicator that says on the importance of certification systems available at universities and their improvement. The particular importance of this phenomenon is that a university cannot have a high rating indicator and the low quality of the educational process. These indicators should determine to complement each other, interpenetrate and interdependent to a friend. It is also necessary to develop and introduce innovative assessment tools for the quality of students' knowledge, development of the competency assessment methodology itself, in the future to have a positive assessment of graduates by employers.
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