The successful conducting of the lesson and the achievement of the goals set is largely determined by the coordinated activity of the teacher and students, which in turn depends on their preparation for the lesson. Careful preparation for the lesson is especially necessary for young teachers who do not have sufficient experience in pedagogical work. In preparing a teacher for a lesson, there are two stages: preliminary and immediate. Preliminary preparation for the lesson consists in the teacher studying the special, pedagogical and methodological literature, in carefully familiarizing himself with the content and requirements of the curriculum in his subject and an explanatory note to it, with textbooks and teaching aids, with the experience of other teachers, in analyzing personal experience in previous periods, in determining the location of a given lesson in the lesson system by section or topic of the program, in thematic planning. The teacher also needs to get acquainted with the programs and textbooks on related subjects and on their subject in junior and senior classes. Before the start of the school year, the teacher distributes in time the study of all the topics of the program, setting the appropriate calendar dates taking into account the number of weekly hours allocated by the curriculum for studying this subject, and the schedule of classes. The program marked in this way serves the teacher as a schedule of work on the subject, helping him to control the timing of the passage of individual sections of the program, in order to avoid unnecessary haste and not to lag behind in the study of the material. Teachers are recommended thematic planning of academic work on the subject. In this case, the theme of each lesson, the content and the main types of work performed in the lesson are determined.
The teacher’s immediate preparation for the lesson consists in specifying thematic planning for each lesson, thinking through and making plans for individual lessons, selecting and checking the necessary manuals and equipment. A lesson plan (sometimes called a lesson work plan as opposed to a thematic plan) is required for each teacher. Usually, only its volume differs from a detailed summary by a novice teacher (trainees for their first lessons make a detailed summary indicating the detailed content and description of the lesson and all their actions) to a short and concise plan by experienced teachers. A detailed plan indicates the teacher’s thoughtfulness of all the details of the upcoming lesson. One cannot agree with the opinion of some teachers that the use of the plan during the lesson can negatively affect their authority among students. Quite the opposite: a teacher should teach his children how to work according to plan. The lesson plan is compiled in any form, however, the following elements should be reflected in it: the date of the lesson and its number according to the thematic plan; the name of the topic of the lesson and the class in which it is held; tasks of education, upbringing and development of schoolchildren; the structure of the lesson, indicating the sequence of its stages and the approximate distribution of time in these stages; content of educational material; methods and techniques of the teacher and students in each part of the lesson; educational equipment necessary for the lesson, including visual technical teaching aids, homework. When drawing up a lesson plan, the teacher proceeds from thematic planning, determines the place and role of this lesson as a structural unit in the general lesson system. When selecting the content of the lesson, the requirements of the curriculum for the subject are taken into account, special attention is paid to its ideological, scientific, theoretical and philosophical orientation, logical sequence and dosage, so as not to overload the lesson and at the same time ensure that students learn the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities. It is equally important to determine the teaching methods and techniques at each stage of the lesson, the nature of the cognitive activity of students (reproductive and search), the combination of frontal, group and individual work of students in the lesson, to select and prepare the necessary didactic material, experiments, visual and technical teaching aids. All this work is carried out taking into account the implementation of the teaching principles, cementing and defining all the components of the lesson. In preparation for the upcoming lesson, you should analyze the previous lessons held in this class in order to provide measures to eliminate the discovered shortcomings and shortcomings.
The success of the lesson and its results depend not only on teacher training, but also on student training. Unfortunately, many teachers do not pay due attention to this issue in practical work. Meanwhile, the targeted preparation of students for the next lesson (or lessons) creates a positive psychological mood in them, arouses increased cognitive interest.
Preparing students for upcoming lessons involves: familiarizing them with the plan for studying program material in upcoming lessons, which is especially important in educational work with high school students; the implementation of preparatory homework, such as acquaintance with certain sections of the textbook, accessible to students, reading popular science literature on the problems of the upcoming lesson, making observations and simple experiments that will facilitate the study of new material.
During the lesson, the teacher provides active cognitive activity of students using various forms of its organization: frontal, collective and individual. The organization of the educational work of students in a lesson at school is closely connected with the formation and strengthening of the classroom team. Frontal training corresponds to this goal, in which the class collective acts as a single whole, and each student individually participates in it as a member of the collective, performing part of the overall work entrusted to him.
The front-line form of organization of students' educational activities in the lesson helps to establish particularly close relations between the teacher and the class, the joint friendly work of students, during which common participation in solving not only educational, but also educational problems, mutual assistance, the formation of sustainable cognitive interests, allows you to use a variety of methods and techniques to enhance the learning process. This form ensures the involvement of all students in the class and their overall progress in learning.
Frontal work in the lesson is combined with individual. So, along with the frontal presentation of the material by the teacher, which is most often used to communicate new information, frontal conversation is widely used.
By asking questions (problematic, suggestive, etc.), comments and evaluative judgments, the teacher directs the conversation in such a way as to involve individual students in the collective discussion, taking into account their individual characteristics.
The problem of improving the effectiveness of the lesson, that is, achieving the goals set, is one of the most important in didactics and practical work of schools. The modern stage of improving the lesson is characterized by the study of the characteristics of the main form of organization of training in new conditions, when the performance indicators of the lessons are not limited solely by the level of knowledge acquired by students, but include the degree to which they possess cognitive skills and the formation and development of their cognitive interests.
The most important direction for improving the lesson is to establish the optimal combination and interaction of its main components: the tasks of education, training and development of the content of educational material, teaching and learning methods, ways of organizing the learning process and cognitive activity of students. To solve this problem, first of all, a clear definition and statement of the tasks of the lesson (and the system of lessons), integrated planning of the educational tasks of each lesson (educational, educational, as well as the development tasks of schoolchildren) are necessary. The effectiveness of the modern lesson is achieved by solving the whole range of tasks, concentrating and thinking schoolchildren on the main, leading ideas and concepts of the topic studied, organizing search activities that have a positive impact on the emergence and development of cognitive interests of students.
- Methods of teaching foreign languages in primary and basic secondary school: Textbook/ V. M. Filatov, V. P. Belogrudova, T. E. Isaeva. — Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2004.
- Mirolyubov A.A, History of Russian teaching methods foreign languages. — M.: Steps, 2002. — P.11.