Educational relations arise in the process of the relationship of upbringing, education and training with self-education, self-education and self-training. You can also define pedagogy as a science about how to educate a person, how to help him become spiritually rich and creatively active. Pedagogy studies the following problems: the study of the essence and patterns of development and formation of personality and their impact on education; definition of perception goals; development of educational content; research and development of educational methods. The categories of any science include the most capacious concepts, reflecting its essence and the most frequently used by it. The main categories of pedagogy: education; development; education; training. Education is a social, purposeful creation of conditions for the assimilation by a new generation of socio-historical experience. The purpose of education is to prepare a new generation for social life and productive work. Development is an objective process of changing the spiritual and physical forces of man. Education is a system of external conditions specially organized by society for human development. Learning is the process of transferring knowledge from a teacher to a student.
Man is born as a biological being. To become a person, he needs to be educated. It is upbringing that ennobles him, instills the necessary qualities. Well-trained specialists and a whole science of education, called pedagogy, are engaged in this process.
It got its name from the Greek words “paydes” — children and “ago” — to lead, literally translated means the art of guiding the upbringing of a child, and the word “teacher” can be translated as “teacher”.
At all times, teachers were looking for the best ways to help children in realizing the opportunities given to them by nature, and in the formation of new qualities. By crumbs, the necessary knowledge was accumulated, pedagogical systems were created, tested and rejected until the most viable, and most useful remained. Gradually, the science of education was formed, the main task of which is the accumulation and systematization of pedagogical knowledge, the comprehension of the laws of human education.
Very often, students, revealing the tasks of pedagogy, say that pedagogy educates and shapes students. No! Specifically, teachers, educators, parents are engaged in this business. In addition, pedagogy shows them the ways, means of education.
All people need pedagogical guidance. However, these questions are especially acute in preschool and primary school age, because during this period the basic qualities of a future person are laid down. The special branch of pedagogical science, which for brevity we call primary school pedagogy, deals with the issues of educating children of preschool and primary school age. Sometimes it is divided into several interconnected branches — family pedagogy, preschool pedagogy and elementary school pedagogy. Each has its own subject, something that this science is studying. The subject of pedagogy in primary school is the education of children of preschool and primary school age.
Pedagogy equips teachers with professional knowledge about the features of the educational processes of this age group, the ability to predict, design and implement the educational process in various conditions, to evaluate its effectiveness. The processes of education need to be constantly improved, because the living conditions of people are changing, information is accumulating, and the requirements for a person are becoming more complicated. Teachers respond to these requests of society by creating new technologies for training, education and upbringing.
Primary school teachers deal with “eternal” problems — they must introduce the child into the complex world of human relations. Nevertheless, never before has their educational activity been so complex, difficult and responsible. The world was different before, it did not have the dangers that await today's children today. From what basis of upbringing will be laid in the family, preschool childcare institution, elementary school, his own life and well-being of society will depend.
Folk pedagogy, having arisen as a response to an objective social need for education, due to the development of people's labor activity, of course, cannot replace school, teachers, books, and science. Nevertheless, it is older than pedagogical science, education as a social institution and initially existed independently of them.
However, pedagogical science, unlike everyday knowledge in the field of education and training, generalizes disparate facts, establishes causal relationships between phenomena. She not only describes them, but also explains them, answers the questions of why and what changes are taking place in human development under the influence of training and education. This knowledge is necessary to anticipate and manage the process of personality development. At one time, the great Russian teacher K. D. Ushinsky warned against empiricism in pedagogy; he correlated pedagogical practice without theory with medicine in medicine.
The subject of pedagogy is a real holistic pedagogical process, purposefully organized in special social institutions (family, educational and cultural institutions)
Pedagogy studies the essence, patterns, trends and prospects of the development of the pedagogical process as a factor and means of human development throughout his life. She develops the theory and technology of the educational process.
Thus, pedagogy is the science of a holistic process of human education, which includes training, education and personal development. In this sense, pedagogy is one of the sciences about a person, namely, about his education, formation as a person.
Modern pedagogy is a rapidly developing science, because you need to keep up with the changes. Pedagogy lags behind — people lag behind, scientific and technological progress stalls. Therefore, you need to constantly draw new knowledge from various sources. Sources of development of pedagogy: centuries-old practical experience of education, enshrined in the way of life, traditions, customs of people, folk pedagogy; philosophical, social studies, pedagogical and psychological works; current world and domestic practice of education; data from specially organized pedagogical research; the experience of innovative educators offering original ideas, new approaches, educational technologies in modern rapidly changing conditions.
The subject of pedagogy is a holistic system of upbringing, education, training, socialization and creative self-development of a person. The subject of pedagogy is the process of directed development and formation of a human personality in the context of its training, education, upbringing, or, more briefly, is the upbringing of a person as a special function of society. The main categories of pedagogy are development, upbringing, education, and training.
Human development is the process of the formation of his personality under the influence of external and internal, controlled and uncontrolled social and natural factors.
Education in the broad sense is a purposeful process of forming the intellect, physical and spiritual forces of the individual, preparing it for life, and active participation in work. Education in the narrow sense of the word is the systematic and deliberate influence of the educator on those brought up with the aim of forming their desired attitude towards people and the phenomena of the world around them. Education as a universal category historically included training and education. In modern science, education refers to the transfer of historical and cultural experience from generation to generation.
So, pedagogy is the science of education. Its main task is the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge about the education of man. Pedagogy knows the laws of upbringing, education and training of people and, on this basis, indicates the best ways and means of achieving set goals for pedagogical practice. A special branch of pedagogical science is involved in the issues of educating children of preschool and primary school age.
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- Krysko V. G. Psychology and pedagogy in diagrams and tables. — Minsk, 1999.
- Smirnov S. A. Pedagogical theories, systems, technologies. — M., 2000.