The topic of this article is very relevant today since the transition to the new FSES has introduced some innovations into the structure of the modern lesson, where the main task is to activate the student’s cognitive abilities aimed at studying his personal manifestations.
Keywords: FSES, activity approach, personality-oriented approach structure of the modern lesson, types of non-standard lessons.
The modern world is very changeable and dynamic. These changes are reflected in scientific knowledge, technology, as well as in the field of human leisure. Therefore, there was a need to develop a new state educational standard in the face of changing educational needs, which will ensure the development of the educational system in the face of changing individual and family demands, the expectations of society and the state's requirements in the field of education. The concept of modernization of English education defines the modern lesson as a multifunctional unit of the educational process, where all pedagogical influences are concentrated and implemented. Communication between teachers and students is aimed not only at enhancing cognitive opportunities, but also at a systematic, focused study of the personal manifestations of each student. Modern education must meet the needs of modern society [1, p.25]. The main requirement made by the conditions of modern life to the level of knowledge of foreign languages is that a person can communicate in a foreign language, solving with his help his life and professional tasks. FSES (federal state educational standard) introduce a new concept — the educational situation, which means such a unit of the educational process in which students with the help of the teacher discover the subject of their action, examine it, determine the goals of their activities and plan it. In this regard, the interaction between teacher and student is changing. From the point of view of the activity approach, the teacher and student become partners. The learner, his personality, is in the spotlight [2, p.135]. The purpose of a modern teacher is to choose methods and forms of organization of educational activity that correspond to the set goal of personal development.
In this regard, the following requirements for the modern lesson of a foreign language are distinguished:
− clear statement of purpose;
− determination of the optimal content of the lesson in accordance with the requirements of the curriculum and the objectives of the lesson, taking into account the level of training and preparedness of students;
− forecasting the level of assimilation by students of scientific knowledge, the formation of skills, both in the lesson and at its individual stages;
− selection of the most rational methods, techniques and means of training, stimulation and control and their optimal impact at each stage of the lesson;
− the choice of the optimal combination of various forms of work in the lesson and the maximum independence of students in the learning process, providing cognitive activity,
− the lesson should be problematic and developing: the teacher himself aims to cooperate with students and knows how to direct them to cooperate with the teacher and students;
− the teacher organizes problematic and search situations, activates the activities of students;
− creation of conditions for the successful learning of students [3, p.88].
The specifics of the subject “foreign language” is such that training aimed at the formation of communicative competence can take place only in conditions of a personality-oriented and active approach. An active approach is that communication training should take place in the course of performing productive types of work — listening to foreign language, reading texts, writing and speaking, where all these types of activities are not considered as an end in themselves, but as a way of solving students' specific, personally important problems and tasks. The personality-oriented (personality-activity) approach (Learner-centred approach) is based on taking into account the individual characteristics of the students, which are considered as individuals with their own characteristics, inclinations and interests [4, p.121]. It is noted that for each student this or that way of carrying out activities for mastering a foreign language is typical. Education in accordance with this approach involves:
− the independence of students in the learning process, which is often expressed in determining the goals and objectives of the course by the students themselves, in choosing the methods that are preferable for them;
− reliance on existing knowledge of students, on his experience;
− taking into account the sociocultural characteristics of students and their lifestyle, encouraging the desire to be “oneself”;
− taking into account the emotional state of students, as well as their moral and ethical and moral values;
− purposeful formation of educational skills, characteristic for a student of educational strategies;
− redistribution of roles in the educational process: limiting the leading role of a teacher, assigning a teacher and a student to the functions of an assistant, consultant, and adviser [5, p.201].
When planning a modern foreign language lesson, a number of features should be highlighted and taken into account, namely the practical orientation of the lesson. In a foreign language lesson, a teacher forms students' skills and abilities to use a foreign language as a means of communication. Knowledge is communicated in order to more effectively form skills. The atmosphere of communication. Creating a favorable atmosphere is a requirement arising from program goals and patterns of learning. Successful communication can only take place when the teacher and student are speech partners. Unity of purpose. A foreign language lesson should solve a whole range of goals at the same time [6, p.78]. As part of the lesson, various aspects of the language are worked out (phonetics, grammar, vocabulary). Work is underway on the development of skills in various types of speech activity: in listening, reading, speaking, writing. However, it should be remembered, when planning a lesson, this is the allocation of one main practical goal. The remaining goals can be defined as tasks that help achieve the main practical goal. For example, the objectives of the lesson may be as follows:
− Formation of lexical skills
− Development of reading techniques
− Development of phonological skills
The ratio of goals and objectives is the ratio of private and general. The realization of the goal is possible due to the solution to a number of tasks [7, p.56]. Thus, setting specific tasks, the teacher determines the path to achieving the goal and also specifies the quality of the formed skill and ability.
But, no matter what form the lessons are applied, an important final step in each lesson should be a reflective activity. Namely, the reflexive approach helps students remember, identify and realize the main components of the activity — it’s meaning, types, methods, problems, ways to solve them, the results obtained, and then set a goal for further work. Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the transition to a new educational standard helps the teacher to stimulate students “the development of key competencies, methods, ways of thinking and activities based on the development of their abilities”, as well as “assessment to enable the student to plan the process of achievement of educational results and improve them in the process of constant self-esteem».
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