The essential condition for the effective organization of educational activities in the system of education at the university is the study of the initial level of formation of this activity among students. Studying the learning skills of students at the beginning of their studies at a higher education institution makes it possible to concretize and empirically substantiate the main tasks of the purposeful formation of learning activities, the optimal forms and methods of teaching students as subjects of learning activities.
In the process of linguistic training at the university on the basis of the subject-activity approach, the entire training system is focused on the student’s personality and is structured in such a way that its activities, experience, worldview, learning and extracurricular interests and inclinations are taken into account when organizing communication in a foreign language. The path to finding the personal meaning of a student’s activity also lies in taking his various interests into account. The student as a subject of educational and professional activity gradually realizes that all work is projected onto the development of thinking, culture of mental work, activity and cognitive independence of creative abilities. In the teaching of a foreign language, the subject-activity approach implies the organization and management of student’s academic work as a subject of educational and professional activity in mastering various types of speech activity (listening, speaking, reading, writing), taking into account the characteristics and linguistic abilities of students.
The main ways of providing professionally oriented teaching of a foreign language with an emphasis on independent work and creative activity of students as the most important indicators of the subject involvement of students in the development of professional qualities are: work on educational texts of a special pedagogical orientation; work on the lexical and grammatical features of the scientific pedagogical text; work on expanding vocabulary, terminology, training future teachers to communicate in a foreign language on the issues of his specialty; preparation and protection of educational projects in a foreign language.
Purposefully organized independent work of the student is an important factor in the development of creative activity in the process of learning a foreign language.
Creating optimal conditions for the development of a student in a foreign language class involves a combination of individual, paired and collective forms of organization of the educational process.
A foreign language course in a non-linguistic university is communicative, professionally-oriented, and aims to develop students' ability to exchange information in the field of professional activity. The understanding, transmission of content and the expression of meaning are of paramount importance. Under the communicative competence should be understood a high degree of training of a university graduate in certain types of foreign language speech activities: reading, writing, listening, speaking for the purposes of professional communication.
One of the components of the structure of a professionally oriented foreign language is teaching students to compress text. Text compression is associated with the processing of information contained in it based on operating with linguistic and logical aspects of the language, as a result of which a new text appears containing essential information and constructed in accordance with the language and stylistic features of the source text. The method of receiving and processing information characteristic of text compression develops the creative abilities of students, improves the skills of independent work with literature; text compression underlies such processes as summarization, annotation, reviewing. Teaching students to compress text implies the formation of strong skills in them to analyze the text, identify supporting semantic nodes, separate essential information from redundant, and then produce a semantic synthesis, which results in a new text.
An important role in the teacher’s self-education is the reading of pedagogical, methodical, and special literature in a foreign language. Reading the original literature in the specialty in foreign language classes in non-language faculties of a pedagogical university pursues the following objectives: a) the formation of intercultural competence; b) activation and enrichment of vocabulary; c) improvement of language skills; g) the formation of the desire for self-reading.
An important task of a pedagogical university is to teach a future specialist to search, to make independent decisions taking into account the current situation, to foster in him an interest in creative activity, in research work as one of the main functions of pedagogical activity. The necessary conditions in the organization of any kind of independent work (and research work is an independent, creative work) is the presence of such factors as motivational readiness, intellectual readiness, linguistic and methodical readiness.
The role of the teacher is to create conditions for the development and self-development of the individual, to stimulate students' desire for creative individuality, to direct the student's educational and cognitive activity to create their own creative educational product. Use in the classroom in a foreign language such productive educational technologies as: Language portfolio; design technologies; games, including language, role and business; creative learning activities; Problem — search research tasks have a positive effect on students' ability to independently create and explore their activities, taking into account their personal needs and individual characteristics.
N. V. Kuzmina believes that the main feature of pedagogical qualifications now is not so much the knowledge of one’s subject as the ability to teach, to generate interest in knowledge, to shape certain personality traits and character. Mastery of professional skills, the achievement of a particular level depends on the individual properties of the person, his individual abilities. Each student should have a plan of their own self-realization, and the vocational training system should provide him with motivation for self-education, to improve vocational training, ensure the independence of knowledge extraction, teach the student the ability to learn, bring to his consciousness that any education is primarily self-education, and means independence of thinking and solving learning tasks. It is necessary to learn to see, set and solve professional tasks independently. In the process of formation and improvement of the ability of free, creative expression in a foreign language, the center of gravity of the language learning process, and in particular, oral speech as a communicative initiative, should gradually shift from memorizing and training processes to the use of creative thinking of students, as proactive speech relies primarily on thinking and emotions. The development of expressive foreign language speech is most effective if it is combined with the development of thinking, that is, it is based on the principle of unity of consciousness and activity, since «consciousness-cognition implies thinking — speech and, therefore, communication”.
In the process of learning a foreign language, communication can be purely academic, non-initiative, not involving the creative thinking of students in the process of speech activity. Such an organization of classes, naturally, cannot solve the tasks of the development of oral speech set in the course program, since the main object of building this educational process is the formation of speech skills, and not the development of speech activity.
Under the independent work of students in the field of foreign language oral speech explores to understand the cognitive and mental activity of students, which is aimed at the formation and development of skills and abilities of oral speech, providing the possibility of free communication in a foreign language. The tasks of independent work of students in the field of foreign language oral speech are the activation of their mastery of a foreign language and speech in this language, the development of students' ability to work independently, the increase in the activity of their mental activity, the intensification and individualization of the entire educational process. The specific tasks of students' independent work are: to teach students to master the language material proposed by the teacher, to use it creatively in speech for the purpose of communication, to work on improving their speech, to use the means of self-monitoring of the results of their work, thereby instilling in students the skill of independent work further activities after graduation.
- Kuzmina N. V. The professionalism of the personality of the teacher. — M., 1990. — 234p.