In article various approaches to a technique state are considered to support innovative activity in economically developed countries of the world. On basis of this analysis authors offered the directions of the state support of innovative process in Uzbekistan.
Keywords: innovation, innovative process, innovative developments, small innovative enterprises, state regulation of the innovative sphere.
В статье рассмотрены подходы к методике государственной поддержки инновационной деятельности в экономически развитых странах. На основе анализа авторами предложены направления государственной поддержки инновационного процесса в Узбекистане.
Ключевые слова: инновация, инновационный процесс, инновационные разработки, малые инновационные предприятия, госрегулирование инновационной сферы.
In a set of developed and dynamically developing countries various methods of the state stimulation of innovative activity in the sector of small private business (SPB) are applied. Here and number of the state programs which finance and support technically innovative developments of SPB on subject government organizations. Except that, there is a set of legislative, financial, tax and property leverages on state and regional levels contributing to the development of innovative activity in all spheres business. The analysis which is carried out by us showed that in world practice there was following main forms of stimulation of innovative activity of SPB:
− Direct financing (subsidies, loans) which reach 50 % expenses on creation of new products and technologies (France, USA and others);
− Granting loans, in that number without payment of percent (Sweden); gratuitous loans for a covering of 50 % of costs of introduction of innovations (Germany) ;
− State programs of financial and technical support the innovative SPB which are carrying out research and development on subject of the government organizations (USA, Japan, Great Britain, India, China, etc. countries);
− Decrease in the state duties for individual inventors and representation of tax privileges to them (Austria, Germany, USA, Japan, etc.), also creation of special infrastructure for their support and economic insurance (Japan) ;
− Target grants for research developments (practically in all developed countries);
− Creation of funds of innovations introduction of with accounting at possible commercial risk (England, Germany, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands);
− Legislative ensuring protection of intellectual property and the author's rights (in all developed countries);
− Delay of duties payment or release from them, if invention concerns economy of energy (Austria);
− Free services of patent attorneys in applications of individual inventors, release from payment of duties (Netherlands, Germany, Japan, India);
− Creation of wide network of funds of the venture capital used for implementation of innovative projects by SPB forces (in all developed and developing countries) ;
− Creation of network of scientific parks, business incubators and zones of technological development (in all developed and developing countries);
− Simplification of taxation for the enterprises operating in to the innovative sphere, including exception of taxation of research costs and development, preferential taxation of the universities and scientific research institute (USA, Great Britain, India, China, Japan);
− State programs for decrease in risks and compensation of risky losses (USA, Japan);
− Creation of the powerful state organizations (corporations, agencies) providing comprehensive scientific and technical, financial and production support of innovative SPB (USA, Japan, India, China, etc. countries) ;
− The information retrieval specialized websites on progressive to technologies and innovative developments, allowing interested enterprises quickly find necessary technical solutions and possible partners.
From our point of view, the powerful stimulating factor of economic and innovative development of many countries is a formation of the clusters uniting the most effective and interconnected enterprises on various sizes, which form the leading group of the companies and provide competitive positions on branch, national and world markets. Cluster approach has been actively applied to formation of nation-wide industrial policy to programs development of regional development and stimulation of innovative activity on a basis of close interaction of large and small business. Experience front lines and developing countries showed that cluster approach serves as a basis for constructive interaction of the private sector, state, trade associations, research and educational institutions in innovative process .
Realizing the need of economic potential accumulation, government of developed and developing countries put considerable means in research and development.
So, according to data of Rating of the countries of the world on the level of expenses on research and development / Research and Development Expenditure which is carried out by the United Nations on problems of education, science and culture (UNESCO) of UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2017), Israel spends 4.3 % of GDP a year, southern Korea of 4.2 %, Japan according to 3.3 %, the USA — 2.8 %, China — 2.1 %. In that time as the Republic Uzbekistan spends about 0.1 % for these purposes GDP. So low level of financing of innovative activity in our country threatens a lag in the scientific and technical sphere and as the investigation — in social and economic development. Such situation, in the first turn is caused by absence of the state scientific and technical policy confirmed with practical actions at all levels of the legislative and executive power. Except that, in Uzbekistan till the present time there was no free competitive market the capital interested in venture investment into small innovative enterprises. We consider that the backwardness interferes with development of venture financing legal ensuring various aspects of investment support innovative activity, weak interaction between developers and investors and also absence of developed infrastructure of venture financing (venture funds, expert and consulting services, system of patenting and protection of intellectual property etc.) .
Many developers badly represent all process of venture financing innovative activity from initial stages up to before its commercialization results in market economy. It is caused by the existing problems of legislative character and taxation and also lack of necessary the number of skilled managers for management of the new venture companies. Efforts on stimulation of innovative activity have to be concentrated on elimination of the main reasons of disinterest of the state and business in long-term innovative projects.
Among the most important problems which demand priority development mechanisms of the state regulation of innovative activity in Uzbekistan, it is necessary to count the following:
− Development of new forms of crediting large innovative projects (on example of SBIR1 and STTR2).
− Development of reasonable state scientific and technical policy on perspective period, definition of strategic priorities of innovative development and their resource providing.
− Development of state mechanisms of consolidation of financial resources and private sectors of economy for realization of prior scientific and technical tasks.
− Assistance to formation and regulation of partner interaction state structures, scientific research institute, higher education institutions, venture funds and public the non-profit organizations specializing in the innovative sphere activity.
− Creation of an effective state system of protection of intellectual rights of property and mechanisms of counteraction to production and sale fakes and counterfeit products.
− Granting the state guarantees on attracted in innovative sphere to the credits. Inclusion of innovative tasks in the main programs economic and social development at the state and municipal levels.
− Development of the state programs of purchase of results of research and development and the knowledge-intensive products, carried out in innovative small enterprises.
− Development and certification expected methods of assessment of efficiency innovative programs and projects with accounting of world experience venture financings.
− Assistance in creation of the effective centers of technical assistance and to transfer technologies to small business at the universities and the research centers.
− Assistance to development of the private organizations in the sphere of examination innovative projects .
The activity of the risk capital can increase only when there are available sources of long-term financing, such as pension funds and insurance companies. For development of venture financing in Uzbekistan, on ours to opinion, development and realization of a number of the following state initiatives is required.
− Creation of a legal basis for activity of venture funds and also for venture investment by pension funds, insurance companies, etc. credit and financial institutes ;
− Introduction of world standards of accounting and ensuring transparency financial activity of the enterprises with the purpose of increase in their appeal for investors;
− Development of the information environment allowing small innovative enterprises and investors to find each other and also to stimulate cooperation communications between small and large enterprises;
− Development of effective mechanisms of financial and tax stimulations of innovative activity ;
− Development of measures of financial stimulation of venture investors activity (tax privileges, state guarantees and insurance of investments), putting means in innovative and hi-tech small enterprises [10,11];
− Assistance to increase in professionalism in venture activity sphere by training experts in corresponding business — schools and universities.
In conclusion it should be noted that creation of the effective national infrastructures to support innovative activity is one of the major conditions for further scientific and technical and economic development of our country.
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 The Small Business Innovation Research (or SBIR) program is a United States Government program
Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)